50 USC Ch. 5: ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY
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50 USC Ch. 5: ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY
From Title 50—WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

CHAPTER 5—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

Sec.
51 to 81.
Repealed or Transferred.
82.
Procurement of ships and material during war.
83 to 88.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

91 to 96.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

98.
Short title.
98a.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose.
98b.
National Defense Stockpile.
98c.
Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile.
98d.
Authority for stockpile operations.
98e.
Stockpile management.
98e–1.
Transferred.
98e–2.
Multiyear procurement authority for domestically processed critical minerals.
98f.
Special Presidential disposal authority.
98g.
Materials development and research.
98h.
National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund.
98h–1.
Strategic and Critical Materials Board of Directors.
98h–2.
Reports.
98h–3.
Definitions.
98h–4.
Importation of strategic and critical materials.
98h–5.
Biennial report on stockpile requirements.
98h–6.
Development and conservation of reliable sources.
98h–7.
National Defense Stockpile Manager.
98i, 99.
Repealed or Transferred.
100.
Nitrate plants.
100a.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

§§51 to 57. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 51, act Aug. 5, 1882, ch. 395, 22 Stat. 299, related to pay of master amorer at Springfield Armory.

Section 52, act June 23, 1874, ch. 486, 18 Stat. 282, related to pay of clerks at Springfield Armory.

Section 53, R.S. §1665, required an annual account of expenses of national armories, together with an account of arms made and repaired thereon.

Section 54, acts Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §2, 26 Stat. 320; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(52), 60 Stat. 870, related to accounts of cost of type and experimental manufacture of guns and other articles.

Section 55, R.S. §1666, authorized Secretary of War to abolish useless or unnecessary arsenals.

Section 56, R.S. §1669, provided for forfeitures by reason of misconduct of workmen in armories.

Section 57, R.S. §1671, exempted from jury duty all artificers and workmen employed in armories and arsenals, of the United States.

§58. Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, title III, §305(d), 68 Stat. 1114

Section, act July 17, 1912, ch. 236, 37 Stat. 193, related to awards. See section 4501 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 90 days after Sept. 1, 1954, see section 307 of act Sept. 1, 1954.

§§59 to 66. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 59, act July 26, 1886, ch. 781, §1, 24 Stat. 151, related to testing of rifled cannon for Navy.

Section 60, act July 8, 1918, ch. 137, 40 Stat. 817, authorized transfer of naval ordnance and ordnance material from Navy Department to Department of War.

Section 61, acts Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 183, 20 Stat. 412; Apr. 14, 1937, ch. 79, 50 Stat. 63, authorized issuance of arms and ammunition to protect public property, provided for reimbursement. See section 4655 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 62, acts Feb. 10, 1920, ch. 64, 41 Stat. 403; June 5, 1920, ch. 240, 41 Stat. 976; May 26, 1952, ch. 334, 66 Stat. 94, authorized loan of rifles to organizations of honorably discharged soldiers. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62a, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3938, 34 Stat. 817, authorized loan of ordnance to schools and State homes for veterans' orphans. See sections 4685 and 9685 of Title 10.

Section 62b, act Dec. 15, 1926, ch. 10, 44 Stat. 922, authorized Secretary of War to relieve posts or camps or organizations composed of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, or marines, and sureties on bonds, from liability on account of loss or destruction of rifles, slings, and cartridge belts loaned to such organizations. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62c, acts May 29, 1934, ch. 369, 48 Stat. 815; Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 826, 49 Stat. 1013, authorized Secretary of War to donate Army equipment loaned under authority of section 62 of this title.

Section 63, act May 11, 1908, ch. 163, 35 Stat. 125, authorized sales of ordnance property to schools and State homes for veterans' orphans. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 64, acts May 28, 1908, ch. 215, §14, 35 Stat. 443; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(g), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(26), 65 Stat. 707, authorized sale of obsolete small arms to patriotic organizations. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10.

Section 64a, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 130, 18 Stat. 388, provided for sale of useless ordnance materials, appropriated an amount equal to net proceeds of sale for purpose of procuring a supply of material, and limited expenditures to not more than $75,000 in any one year.

Section 65, acts Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276; Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357, authorized sale of serviceable ordnance and ordnance stores to American designers.

Section 66, acts Feb. 8, 1889, ch. 116, 25 Stat. 657; Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 423, 30 Stat. 1073; May 26, 1900, ch. 586, 31 Stat. 216; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(e), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(27), 65 Stat. 707, authorized issuance of condemned ordnance to State homes for soldiers and sailors. See sections 4686 and 9686 of Title 10.

§67. Transferred


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, acts May 22, 1896, ch. 231, 29 Stat. 133; May 26, 1928, ch. 785, 45 Stat. 773; Feb. 28, 1933, ch. 137, 47 Stat. 1369; June 19, 1940, ch. 398, §1, 54 Stat. 491; July 31, 1947, ch. 421, 61 Stat. 707; Feb. 27, 1948, ch. 76, §1, 62 Stat. 37; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(2), 65 Stat. 706, which authorized loans or gifts of condemned or obsolete equipment, was transferred to section 150p of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and subsequently repealed and reenacted as section 2572 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §§1, 53, 70A Stat. 143, 641.

§§68 to 71. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 68, acts Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 319, §47, 35 Stat. 1075; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(i), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(28), 65 Stat. 708, authorized sale of obsolete ordnance for public parks, public buildings and soldiers' monuments purposes. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 69, act Mar. 2, 1905, ch. 1307, 33 Stat. 841, authorized sale of individual pieces of armament. See section 2574 of Title 10.

Section 70, acts Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 751; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(h), 64 Stat. 273, authorized sale of ordnance property to officers of the Navy and Marine Corps. See section 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

Section 71, act Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 750, authorized sale of ordnance stores to civilian employees of Army and to American National Red Cross. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

§72. Repealed. May 1, 1937, ch. 146, §5(i), 50 Stat. 126

Section, act Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §1, 39 Stat. 643, related to sale of ordnance and stores to Cuba.

§73. Repealed. Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357

Section, act Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276, related to disposition of proceeds from sales of serviceable ordnance and stores. See sections 2208 and 2210 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§§74 to 81. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 74, act Jan. 22, 1923, ch. 28, 42 Stat. 1142, provided that net proceeds of sales of useless ordnance material by Navy Department should be covered into Treasury as "Miscellaneous receipts". See section 8763 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 75, act Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 391, §1, 37 Stat. 589, related to payment for transfers of ordnance or stores to bureaus or departments.

Section 76, act June 20, 1878, ch. 359, §1, 20 Stat. 223, authorized private use of a machine for testing iron and steel.

Section 77, acts Mar. 3, 1885, ch. 360, 23 Stat. 502; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, par. 27, 45 Stat. 988, regulated tests of iron and steel and other materials for industrial purposes.

Section 78, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §123, 39 Stat. 215, related to gauges, dies, and tools for manufacture of arms.

Section 79, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §124, 39 Stat. 215, related to nitrate plants.

Section 80, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §120, 39 Stat. 213, 214, related to procurement of war material and mobilization of industries. See sections 4882 to 4884, 4892, and 4971 of Title 10.

Section 81, act May 14, 1928, ch. 544, 45 Stat. 509, authorized Secretary of War to secure assistance, whenever practicable, of Geological Survey, Coast and Geodetic Survey, or other mapping agencies of the Government in execution of military surveys and maps. Provisions similar to former section 81 were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Mar. 23, 1928, ch. 232, title I, 45 Stat. 342.

Feb. 23, 1927, ch. 167, title I, 44 Stat. 1123.

Apr. 15, 1926, ch. 146, title I, 44 Stat. 273.

Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 911.

June 7, 1924, ch. 291, title I, 43, Stat. 496.

Mar. 2, 1923, ch. 178, title I, 42 Stat. 1402.

June 30, 1922, ch. 253, title I, 42 Stat. 741.

§82. Procurement of ships and material during war

(a) Definitions

The word "person" as used in subsections (b) and (c) shall include any individual, trustee, firm, association, company, or corporation. The word "ship" shall include any boat, vessel, submarine, or any form of aircraft, and the parts thereof. The words "war material" shall include arms, armament, ammunition, stores, supplies, and equipment for ships and airplanes, and everything required for or in connection with the production thereof. The word "factory" shall include any factory, workshop, engine works, building used for manufacture, assembling, construction, or any process, and any shipyard or dockyard. The words "United States" shall include the Canal Zone and all territory and waters, continental and insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Presidential powers

In time of war the President is authorized and empowered, in addition to all other existing provisions of law:

First. Within the limits of the amounts appropriated therefor, to place an order with any person for such ships or war material as the necessities of the Government, to be determined by the President, may require and which are of the nature, kind, and quantity usually produced or capable of being produced by such person. Compliance with all such orders shall be obligatory on any person to whom such order is given, and such order shall take precedence over all other orders and contracts theretofore placed with such person. If any person owning, leasing, or operating any factory equipped for the building or production of ships or war material for the Navy shall refuse or fail to give to the United States such preference in the execution of such an order, or shall refuse to build, supply, furnish, or manufacture the kind, quantity, or quality of ships or war material so ordered at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President, the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such person, or of any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Second. Within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to modify or cancel any existing contract for the building, production, or purchase of ships or war material; and if any contractor shall refuse or fail to comply with the contract as so modified the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such contractor, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Third. To require the owner or occupier of any factory in which ships or war material are built or produced to place at the disposal of the United States the whole or any part of the output of such factory, and, within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to deliver such output or parts thereof in such quantities and at such times as may be specified in the order at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President.

Fourth. To requisition and take over for use or operation by the Government any factory, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, whether the United States has or has not any contract or agreement with the owner or occupier of such factory.

(d) 1 Compensation for commandeered material

Whenever the United States shall cancel or modify any contract, make use of, assume, occupy, requisition, or take over any factory or part thereof, or any ships or war material, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b), it shall make just compensation therefor, to be determined by the President, and if the amount thereof so determined by the President is unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall be paid fifty per centum of the amount so determined by the President and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as added to said fifty per centum shall make up such amount as will be just compensation therefor, in the manner provided for by section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28.

(Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 180, 39 Stat. 1192.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Codification

In subsec. (d), "section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28" substituted for "section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code" (those sections classified to sections 41(20) and 250 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary) on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 1 of which enacted Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Section 1346 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the district courts in cases in which the United States is defendant. Section 1491 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the United States Court of Claims. Sections 24(20) and 145 of the Judicial Code were also classified to sections 1496, 1501, 1503, 2401, 2402, and 2501 of Title 28.

Similar Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the Naval Appropriation Act, 1918, act July 1, 1918, ch. 114, 40 Stat. 719, which terminated six months after the treaty of peace between the United States and Germany (Oct. 18, 1921).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of War and Emergencies

Act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of the provisions of this section, which authorized the President to acquire, through construction or conversion, ships, landing craft, and other vessels, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.


Executive Documents

Ex. Ord. No. 12742. National Security Industrial Responsiveness

Ex. Ord. No. 12742, Jan. 8, 1991, 56 F.R. 1079, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §36, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10, Armed Forces], and 50 U.S.C. 82, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 101. Policy. The United States must have the capability to rapidly mobilize its resources in the interest of national security. Therefore, to achieve prompt delivery of articles, products, and materials to meet national security requirements, the Government may place orders and require priority performance of these orders.

Sec. 102. Delegation of Authority under 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816].

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President, under 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], with respect to the placing of orders for prompt delivery of articles or materials, except for the taking authority under (c), are hereby delegated to:

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other articles and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated by paragraph (a) of this section shall be exercised only after:

(1) a determination by the Secretary of Defense that prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the exclusive use of the armed forces of the United States is in the interest of national security, or

(2) a determination by the Secretary of Energy that the prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the Department of Energy's atomic energy programs is in the interest of national security.

(c) All determinations of the type described in paragraph (b) of this section and all delegations—made prior to the effective date of this order under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended [50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.], and under its implementing rules and regulations—shall be continued in effect, including but not limited to approved programs listed under the Defense Priorities and Allocations System (15 CFR Part 700).

Sec. 103. Delegation of Authority under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501, and 50 U.S.C. 82.

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10] with respect to the placing of orders for necessary products or materials, and under 50 U.S.C. 82 with respect to the placing of orders for ships or war materials, except for the taking authority vested in the President by these acts, are hereby delegated to:

(1) the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other products and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated in paragraph (a) of this section may be exercised only after the President has made the statutorily required determination.

Sec. 104. Implementation. (a) The authorities delegated under sections 102 and 103 of this order shall include the power to redelegate such authorities, and the power of successive redelegation of such authorities, to departments and agencies, officers, and employees of the Government. The authorities delegated in this order may be implemented by regulations promulgated and administered by the Secretaries of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Transportation, Homeland Security, and Commerce, and the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate.

(b) All departments and agencies delegated authority under this order are hereby directed to amend their rules and regulations as necessary to reflect the new authorities delegated herein that are to be relied upon to carry out their functions. To the extent authorized by law, including 50 U.S.C. App. 486 [468] [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10], and 50 U.S.C. 82, all rules and regulations issued under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, with respect to the placing of priority orders for articles, products, ships, and materials, including war materials, shall be deemed, where appropriate, to implement the authorities delegated by sections 102 and 103 of this order, and shall remain in effect until amended or revoked by the respective Secretary. All orders, regulations, and other forms of administrative actions purported to have been issued, taken, or continued in effect pursuant to the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, shall, until amended or revoked by the respective Secretaries or the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate, remain in full force and effect, to the extent supported by any law or any authority delegated to the respective Secretary or the Director pursuant to this order.

(c) Upon the request of the Secretary of Defense with respect to particular articles, products, or materials that are determined to be needed to meet national security requirements, any other official receiving a delegation of authority under this Executive order to place orders or to enforce precedence of such orders, shall exercise such authority within 10 calendar days of the receipt of the request; provided, that if the head of any department or agency having delegated responsibilities hereunder disagrees with a request of the Secretary of Defense, such department or agency head shall, within 10 calendar days from the receipt of the request, refer the issue to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who shall ensure expeditious resolution of the issue.

(d) Proposed department and agency regulations and procedures to implement the delegated authority under this order, and any new determinations made under sections 102(b)(1) or (2), shall be coordinated by the Secretary of Homeland Security with all appropriate departments and agencies.

Sec. 105. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

1 So in original. No subsec. (c) has been enacted.

§§83 to 85. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 83, act May 29, 1928, ch. 853, §1, 45 Stat. 928, related to ammunition for use of Army and Navy, storage and dispersal, control by a joint board of officers. See section 172 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 84, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 133, §1, 18 Stat. 455, related to expenditure at armories for perfection of patentable inventions.

Section 85, act Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 128, §6, 41 Stat. 1352, authorized Secretary of War to proceed with installation of guns and howitzers.

§§86 to 88. Omitted

Codification

Sections 86 to 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §§1–3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic sources of tin, and were superseded by the Export Control Act of 1949 (former sections 2021 to 2032 of the former Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 10 of that Act (former section 2030 of the former Appendix to this title). The act of Feb. 15, 1936 was subsequently superseded by the Export Administration Act of 1969 (former sections 2401 to 2413 of the former Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 12 of that Act (former section 2411 of the former Appendix to this title). See, also, the Export Control Reform Act of 2018, which is classified principally to chapter 58 (§4801 et seq.) of this title.

Section 86, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §1, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic resources of tin.

Section 87, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §2, 49 Stat. 1140, related to prohibition of exportation except on license.

Section 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to penalties for violations of sections 86 and 87 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

§§91 to 94. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 91, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §1, 52 Stat. 707, authorized Secretary of War to place educational orders for munitions of special or technical design.

Section 92, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §2, 52 Stat. 708, related to production equipment.

Section 93, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §3, 52 Stat. 708, placed certain limitations on number of orders.

Section 94, acts June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §4, 52 Stat. 708; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 35, §13, 53 Stat. 560, related to availability of appropriations for purposes of sections 91 to 94 of this title.

§95. Omitted


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, act June 30, 1938, ch. 852, 52 Stat. 1255, authorized an appropriation of $2,000,000 to remain until expended for purpose of rotary-wing and other aircraft research, development, procurement, experimentation, and operation for service testing.

§96. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section, act July 15, 1939, ch. 283, 53 Stat. 1042, related to purchase by Secretary of War of equipment for experimental and test purposes. See section 4023 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

§98. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the "Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act".

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596, related to declaration of Congressional policy in enacting this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3201, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245, provided that: "This title [enacting section 98h–5 of this title, amending sections 98a, 98b, 98d, 98e–1, 98h, 98h–2, and 98h–4 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987'."

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–41, §1, July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319, provided: "That this Act [enacting this section and sections 98a to 98h–3 of this title, redesignating former section 98h–1 of this title as 98h–4 of this title, amending section 4533 of this title, sections 1743 and 1745 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 741b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 485 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, enacting a provision set out as a note under this section, and repealing a provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979'."

Short Title

Act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, formerly §10, as added by act July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, provided that this Act, which enacted this subchapter, be cited as the "Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(2), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.

New Budget Authority

Pub. L. 96–41, §4, July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320, provided that: "Any provision authorizing the enactment of new budget authority contained in the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1979 Amendment note above] shall be effective on October 1, 1979."


Executive Documents

Executive Order No. 12155

Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12417, May 2, 1983, 48 F.R. 20035, which related to delegation of functions vested in President by Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], to various Federal agencies and officials, was revoked by Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247, effective 30 days after Dec. 4, 1987.

Ex. Ord. No. 12626. National Defense Stockpile Manager

Ex. Ord. No. 12626, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), as amended, section 3203 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1988 (Public Law 100–180) [amending section 98e–1 of this title and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title], and section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense is designated National Defense Stockpile Manager. The functions vested in the President by the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], except the functions vested in the President by sections 7, 8, and 13 of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98f, 98g, 98h–4], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense. The functions vested in the President by section 8(a) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(a)] are delegated to the Secretary of the Interior. The functions vested in the President by section 8(b) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(b)] are delegated to the Secretary of Agriculture.

Sec. 2. The functions vested in the President by section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)), are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 3. The functions vested in the President by section 204(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 485(f)) [now 40 U.S.C. 574(d)], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 4. In executing the functions delegated to him by this Order, the Secretary of Defense may delegate such functions as he may deem appropriate, subject to his direction. The Secretary shall consult with the heads of affected agencies in performing the functions delegated to him by this Order.

Ronald Reagan.      

Ex. Ord. No. 14051. Designation To Exercise Authority Over the National Defense Stockpile

Ex. Ord. No. 14051, Oct. 31, 2021, 86 F.R. 60747, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), section 1413 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (Public Law 112–239) [amending sections 98f and 98h–7 of this title], and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy and Purpose. The United States needs resilient, diverse, and secure supply chains to ensure our economic prosperity, national security, and national competitiveness. In Executive Order 14017 of February 24, 2021 (America's Supply Chains) [86 F.R. 11849], I directed a comprehensive review of America's supply chains to ensure that they are resilient in the face of a range of risks. One critical component of safeguarding supply chain resilience and industrial base health is ensuring that both the Federal Government and the private sector maintain adequate quantities of supplies, equipment, or raw materials on hand to create a buffer against potential shortages and import dependencies. Some of the Federal Government's key tools to maintain adequate quantities of supplies to guard against such shortages and dependencies are the United States national stockpiles, including the National Defense Stockpile. By strengthening the National Defense Stockpile, the Federal Government will both ensure that it is keeping adequate quantities of goods on hand and provide a model for the private sector, while recognizing that private sector stockpiles and reserves can differ from government ones. This order confers authority related to the release of strategic and critical materials from the National Defense Stockpile to improve Federal Government efforts around stockpiling for national defense purposes.

Sec. 2. Designation. In accordance with section 98f of title 50, United States Code, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment (Under Secretary) is designated to have authority to release strategic and critical materials from the National Defense Stockpile.

Sec. 3. Execution and Consultation. In executing the authority conferred by this order, the Under Secretary may release strategic and critical materials from the National Defense Stockpile for use, sale, or other disposition only when required for use, manufacture, or production for purposes of national defense. No release is authorized for economic or budgetary purposes. Prior to ordering the release of strategic and critical materials from the National Defense Stockpile, the Under Secretary shall consult with the heads of relevant executive departments and agencies.

Sec. 4. Authority. (a) All previously issued orders, regulations, rulings, certificates, directives, and other actions relating to any function affected by this order shall remain in effect except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this order or are subsequently amended or revoked under proper authority. Nothing in this order shall affect the validity or force of anything done under previous delegations or another assignment of authority under the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act.

(b) Nothing in this order shall affect the authorities assigned under Executive Order 13603 of March 16, 2012 (National Defense Resources Preparedness) [50 U.S.C. 4553 note].

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

J.R. Biden, Jr.      

§98a. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) The Congress finds that the natural resources of the United States in certain strategic and critical materials are deficient or insufficiently developed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States for national defense.

(b) It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide for the acquisition and retention of stocks of certain strategic and critical materials and to encourage the conservation and development of sources of such materials within the United States and thereby to decrease and to preclude, when possible, a dangerous and costly dependence by the United States upon foreign sources or a single point of failure for supplies of such materials in times of national emergency.

(c) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

(d) To the maximum extent practicable and to reduce the reliance of the National Defense Stockpile program on appropriated funds, the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall seek to achieve positive cash flows from the recovery of strategic and critical materials pursuant to section 98e(a)(5) of this title.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 523.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98a, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to determination of strategic and critical materials, the quantity and quality to be purchased, formation and functions of industry advisory committees, and the subsistence and traveling expenses of members of those committees, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 118–31 added subsec. (d).

2013—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239 inserted "or a single point of failure" after "foreign sources".

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "In providing for the National Defense Stockpile under this subchapter, Congress establishes the following principles:

"(1) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

"(2) Before October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to sustain the United States for a period of not less than three years during a national emergency situation that would necessitate total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war of indefinite duration.

"(3) On and after October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to meet the needs of the United States during a period of a national emergency that would necessitate an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States under planning guidance issued by the Secretary of Defense."

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(1), substituted "Before October 1, 1994, the quantities" for "The quantities".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(2), added par. (3).

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 98h–5 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1996."

§98b. National Defense Stockpile

(a) Determination of materials; quantities

Subject to subsection (c), the President shall determine from time to time (1) which materials are strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter, and (2) the quality and quantity of each such material to be acquired for the purposes of this subchapter and the form in which each such material shall be acquired and stored. Such materials when acquired, together with the other materials described in section 98c of this title, shall constitute and be collectively known as the National Defense Stockpile (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "stockpile").

(b) Guidelines for exercise of Presidential authority

The President shall make the determinations required to be made under subsection (a) on the basis of the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title.

(c) Quantity change; notification to Congress

(1) The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as in effect on September 30, 1987, may be changed only as provided in this subsection or as otherwise provided by law enacted after December 4, 1987.

(2) The President shall notify Congress in writing of any increase proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled that involves the acquisition of additional materials for the stockpile. The President may make the increase after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the notification. The President shall include a full explanation and justification for the proposed increase with the notification.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1233(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1412(b), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2872.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98b, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 597; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title I, §§102, 121, 60 Stat. 815, 822; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §102(a), 63 Stat. 380; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to purchase, storage, refinement, rotation, and disposal of materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98e of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2022—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 117–263, in first sentence, substituted "The President shall notify Congress in writing of any increase proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled that involves the acquisition of additional materials for the stockpile." for "The President shall notify Congress in writing of any change proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled.", in second sentence, substituted "the increase after the end of the 30-day period" for "the change after the end of the 45-day period" and, in third sentence, substituted "increase" for "change".

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "after the end of the 45-day period beginning on" for "effective on or after the 30th legislative day following" and struck out at end "For purposes of this paragraph, a legislative day is a day on which both Houses of Congress are in session."

1992—Subsec. (c)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 102–484 added par. (2) and struck out former pars. (2) to (5) which read as follows:

"(2) If the President proposes to change the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, the President shall include a full explanation and justification for the change in the next annual material plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title.

"(3) If the proposed change in the case of any material would result in a new requirement for the quantity of such material different from the requirement for that material in effect on September 30, 1987, by less than 10 percent, the change may be made by the President effective on or after the first day of the first fiscal year beginning after the explanation and justification for the proposed change is submitted pursuant to paragraph (2).

"(4) In the case of a proposed change not covered by paragraph (3), the proposed change may be made only to the extent expressly authorized by law.

"(5) If in any year the reports required by sections 98h–2(b) and 98h–5 of this title are not submitted to Congress as required by law (including the time for such submission), then during the next fiscal year no change under paragraph (3) may be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter."

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–456 substituted "December 4, 1987" for "the date of the enactment of the National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987", which for purposes of codification had been translated as "December 4, 1987", thus requiring no change in text.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(1), substituted "Subject to subsection (c), the" for "The".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(2), substituted "the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title." for "the following principles:" and struck out cls. (1) and (2) which related to purpose of National Defense Stockpile and quantities of materials stockpiled.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as determined under subsection (a), may not be revised unless the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives are notified in writing of the proposed revision and the reasons for such revision at least thirty days before the effective date of such revision."


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98c. Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile

(a) Contents

The stockpile consists of the following materials:

(1) Materials acquired under this subchapter and contained in the national stockpile on July 29, 1979.

(2) Materials acquired under this subchapter after July 29, 1979.

(3) Materials in the supplemental stockpile established by section 1704(b) of title 7 (as in effect from September 21, 1959, through December 31, 1966) on July 29, 1979.

(4) Materials acquired by the United States under the provisions of section 4533 of this title and transferred to the stockpile by the President pursuant to subsection (f) of such section.

(5) Materials transferred to the United States under section 2423 of title 22 that have been determined to be strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter and that are allocated by the President under subsection (b) of such section for stockpiling in the stockpile.

(6) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation and transferred to the stockpile under section 714b(h) of title 15.

(7) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation under paragraph (2) of section 1743(a) of title 7, and transferred to the stockpile under the third sentence of such section.

(8) Materials transferred to the stockpile by the President under paragraph (4) of section 1743(a) of title 7.

(9) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (b).

(10) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (c).

(b) Transfer and reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any material that (1) is under the control of any department or agency of the United States, (2) is determined by the head of such department or agency to be excess to its needs and responsibilities, and (3) is suitable for transfer or disposal through the stockpile shall be transferred to the stockpile. Any such transfer shall be made without reimbursement to such department or agency, but all costs required to effect such transfer shall be paid or reimbursed from funds appropriated to carry out this subchapter.

(c) Transfer and disposal

The Secretary of Defense shall determine whether materials are suitable for transfer to the stockpile under subsection (b), are suitable for disposal through the stockpile, and are uncontaminated.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320; amended Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Z), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820, 1821; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1412(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1704(b) of title 7, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3635, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to a supplemental stockpile.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98c, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §37, 90 Stat. 380, required reports to Congress, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h–2 of this title.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §1412(a)(1), substituted "suitable for transfer or disposal through" for "required for".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §1412(a)(2), struck out "(2)" before "The Secretary", substituted "subsection (b)" for "this subsection", and struck out par. (1) which read as follows: "The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall transfer to the stockpile for disposal in accordance with this subchapter uncontaminated materials that are in the Department of Energy inventory of materials for the production of defense-related items, are excess to the requirements of the Department for that purpose, and are suitable for transfer to the stockpile and disposal through the stockpile."

2008—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–246 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1704(b) of title 7.

1996—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(b), added par. (10).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(a), added subsec. (c).

1986Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "on July 29, 1979" for "on the day before the date of the date of enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979" in pars. (1) and (3), and "after July 29, 1979" for "on or after the date of the enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979" in par. (2).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Clarification of Stockpile Status of Certain Materials

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, provided that: "All materials purchased under section 303 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2093) [now 50 U.S.C. 4533] and held in the Defense Production Act inventory as of June 30, 1992, are hereby transferred to the National Defense Stockpile and shall be managed, controlled, and subject to disposal by the National Defense Stockpile Manager as provided in the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98a et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.]."

§98d. Authority for stockpile operations

(a) Funds appropriated for acquisitions; proposed stockpile transactions; significant changes therein

(1) Except for acquisitions made under the authority of paragraph (3) of this section 1 or under the authority of paragraph (3) or (4) of section 98e(a) of this title, no funds may be obligated or appropriated for acquisition of any material under this subchapter unless funds for such acquisition have been authorized by law. Funds appropriated for any acquisition of materials under this subchapter (and for transportation and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition) shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts.

(2) If for any fiscal year the President proposes (or Congress requires) a significant change in any stockpile transactions proposed in the Annual Materials and Operations Plan for such fiscal year after the National Defense Stockpile Manager submits the report under section 98h–2(b)(2) of this title containing such plan, or a significant transaction not included in such plan, no amount may be obligated or expended for such transaction during such year until the President has submitted a full statement of the proposed transaction to the appropriate committees of Congress and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees.

(3) Using funds appropriated for acquisition of materials under this subchapter, the National Defense Stockpile Manager may acquire materials determined to be strategic and critical under section 98b(a) of this title without regard to the requirement of the first sentence of paragraph (1) if the Stockpile Manager determines there is a shortfall of such materials in the stockpile.

(b) Disposal

Except for disposals made under the authority of paragraph (3), (4), or (5) 2 of section 98e(a) of this title or under section 98f(a) of this title, no disposal may be made from the stockpile unless such disposal, including the quantity of the material to be disposed of, has been specifically authorized by law.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide for the transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of materials contained in or acquired for the stockpile. Funds appropriated for such purposes shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriations Acts.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(a), (b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, 382; Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §903, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §§1411(d)(1)(A), 1412(a), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2871, 2872; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(e)(2)(A), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 527.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Paragraph (5) of section 98e(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated paragraph (6) of section 98e(a) of this title by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98d, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598, related to release of stock pile materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98f of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former sections 98b and 98g of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 118–31 substituted "the National Defense Stockpile Manager" for "the Board".

2022—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 117–263, §1412(a)(1)(A), inserted "under the authority of paragraph (3) of this section or" after "Except for acquisitions made" and substituted "appropriated for any acquisition of materials under this subchapter" for "appropriated for such acquisition".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 117–263, §1411(d)(1)(A), struck out "certain stockpile transactions in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress for that year under section 98h–2(b) of this title and after that plan is submitted the President proposes" after "the President proposes" and substituted "any stockpile transactions proposed in the Annual Materials and Operations Plan for such fiscal year after the Board submits the report under section 98h–2(b)(2) of this title containing such plan" for "any such transaction".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 117–263, §1412(a)(1)(B), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 117–263, §1412(a)(2), substituted "until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriations Acts" for "to carry out the purposes for which appropriated for a period of two fiscal years, if so provided in appropriation Acts".

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted "and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees." for "and a period of 30 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees. In computing any 30-day period for the purpose of the preceding sentence, there shall be excluded any day on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain."

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–484 struck out "(1)" after "the stockpile" and ", or (2) if the disposal would result in there being an unobligated balance in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund in excess of $100,000,000" after "authorized by law".

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out "or until each such committee, before the expiration of such period, notifies the President that it has no objection to the proposed transaction" before period at end of first sentence.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "paragraph (3), (4), or (5)" for "paragraph (4) or (5)".

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–525, §903(b), substituted "$100,000,000" for "$250,000,000".

Pub. L. 98–525, §903(a), substituted "an unobligated balance" for "a balance" where first appearing and "$250,000,000" for "$1,000,000,000 or, in the case of a disposal to be made after September 30, 1983, if the disposal would result in there being a balance in the fund in excess of $500,000,000".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted applicability to other incidental expenses, substituted "until expended, unless otherwise" for "for a period of five fiscal years, if so", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(b), inserted designation for cl. (1) and added cl. (2).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §903(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, provided in part that the amendment by section 903(b) of Pub. L. 98–525, is effective Oct. 1, 1987.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(f), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1981."

Department of Defense Readiness To Support Prolonged Conflict

Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1415, Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2873, provided that:

"(a) Studies Required.—

"(1) In general.—For each report required by section 14(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–5(a)), the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall—

"(A) conduct a study on the strategic materials required by the Department of Defense to sustain combat operations for not less than one year against the pacing threat identified in the National Defense Strategy; and

"(B) not later than January 15, 2024, submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on such study in a classified form with an unclassified summary.

"(2) Energy storage and electronic components.—

"(A) In general.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall conduct a study of the energy storage and electronic components necessary to sustain combat operations for not less than one year against the pacing threat identified in the National Defense Strategy.

"(B) Report.—

"(i) In general.—Not later than January 15, 2024, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the study required under subparagraph (A).

"(ii) Form.—The report required by clause (i) shall be submitted in an unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

"(iii) Elements.—The report required by clause (i) shall include the following:

     "(I) A description of the specific number and type of energy storage and electronic components that the Department of Defense requires for the manufacture of munitions, combat support items, and weapon systems to sustain combat operations.

     "(II) A description of the specific number and type of energy storage and electronic components that the Department of Defense requires to replenish or replace munitions, combat support items, and weapon systems that are lost or expended during the execution and sustainment of the relevant operational plan.

     "(III) A description of supply chain vulnerabilities during the sustainment and execution period, such as sole sources of supply, war damage, and shipping interdiction.

     "(IV) A description of supply chain vulnerabilities prior to the sustainment and execution period and the replenishment and replacement period, such as reliance on sole sources of supply, geographic proximity to strategic competitors, and diminishing manufacturing sources.

     "(V) An identification of alternative sources of supply for energy and electronics components that are domestic or are from allies or partners of the United States.

     "(VI) An assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of the preparedness and response programs of the Department of Defense, such as the National Defense Stockpile, the Warstopper program, war reserves and pre-positioned stocks, contract options, or other methods to mitigate postulated shortfalls to Department of Defense requirements.

     "(VII) Any other such elements deemed appropriate by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment.

"(C) Energy storage and electronic component defined.—In this paragraph, the term 'energy storage and electronic component' includes—

"(i) an item that operates by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles in circuits, using interconnections of electrical devices such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches, transistors, or integrated circuits; and

"(ii) battery cells, battery modules, battery packs, and other related components related to batteries.

"(b) Acquisition Priority.—Consistent with the authority in section 5 of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98d) and subject to the availability of appropriations, the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall acquire the highest priority strategic and critical materials identified in the report submitted under subsection (a)(1).

"(c) Strategic and Critical Materials Defined.—In this section, the term 'strategic and critical materials' has the meaning given such term in section 12 of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–3)."

Prohibition of Reductions in Stockpile Goals

Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1612, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, as amended by Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3201, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067, prohibited action before Oct. 1, 1987, to implement or administer any change in a stockpile goal in effect on Oct. 1, 1984, that would result in a reduction in the quality or quantity of any strategic and critical material acquired for the National Defense Stockpile.

Materials in the National Defense Stockpile

Provisions relating to certain materials in the National Defense Stockpile were contained in the following acts:

Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 528.

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title VIII, §850, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1509.

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XIV, §1414, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1708.

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1411, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2569.

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §§1413, 1414, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418, 419.

Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3303, 3304, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3546.

Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXIII, §3303, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2193.

Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, 3306(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1388, 1389, 1391.

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3303], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-483.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3402(a)–(e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 972, 973; Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3546; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §1412(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4412; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1654.

Pub. L. 106–31, title I, §303, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8109, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2322.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2262, 2263; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3403(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3302], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-483; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2193; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3545; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §1412(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XIV, §1412(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4648.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303–3305, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2056, 2057; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(2), 3403(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3304(b), 3305, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XIV, §1412(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4648; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2562.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2854, 2855; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(1), 3403(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973, 974; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1960, 1961.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301–3303, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2649–2651; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3303(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(3), div. C, title XXXIII, §3303, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, 3098.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3308, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8094, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1196.

Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3302, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1685.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1501, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2085.

Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §§3204, 3205, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4068.

Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-120, 3341-308, 3341-326.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-120, 1783-308, 1783-326.

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §§901, 902, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §799B], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1866.

Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §788, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1592.

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §201, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 380.

Authorization of Appropriations

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §202, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, provided that:

"(a) Effective on October 1, 1981, there is authorized to be appropriated the sum of $535,000,000 for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 6(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98e(a)).

"(b) Any acquisition using funds appropriated under the authorization of subsection (a) shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.)."

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas

Act June 22, 1956, ch. 426, 70 Stat. 329, directed Federal Facilities Corporation immediately to sell or lease Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, and waste acid plant and other assets of Government's tin program, prescribed corporate powers of Corporation in regard to sale or lease, established a Tin Advisory Committee to consult with Corporation, established periods for receipt and negotiation of purchase proposals, and provided that if no contract for sale or lease was effected prior to Jan. 31, 1957, then smelter and other assets be reported as excess property for transfer and disposal in accordance with provisions of Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949.

Maintenance of Domestic Tin-Smelting Industry; Transfer of Functions, Etc.

Act June 28, 1947, ch. 159, 61 Stat. 190, as amended June 29, 1948, ch. 722, 62 Stat. 1101; June 30, 1949, ch. 284, 63 Stat. 350; Aug. 21, 1950, ch. 766, 64 Stat. 468; July 30, 1953, ch. 282, title I, §103, 67 Stat. 230; June 22, 1956, ch. 426, §5(a), 70 Stat. 329, declared tin to be a highly strategic and critical material in short supply, directed that it was in the public interest that Congress make a thorough investigation on the advisability of the maintenance of a permanent tin-smelting industry and study the availability of adequate tin supplies, provided that the powers, functions, duties, and authority of the United States exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy, sell, and transport tin, and tin ore and concentrates, to improve, develop, maintain, and operate by lease or otherwise the Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, to finance research in tin smelting and processing, and to do all other things necessary to the accomplishment of the foregoing continue in effect until Jan. 31, 1957, or until such earlier time as the Congress shall otherwise provide, and be exercised and performed by such officer, agency, or instrumentality of the United States as the President may designate, authorized diversification of tin-recovery facilities in the United States, and required the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to report to Congress on its activities not later than Dec. 31, 1947, and at the end of each six months thereafter.

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas; Cancellation of Obligations

Cancellation of obligation of General Services Administration to Federal Facilities Corporation existing by virtue of section 5(b) of act June 22, 1956, set out as a note above, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 87–190, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 418, formerly set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the former Appendix to this title.


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Federal Facilities Corporation; Abolition and Dissolution of Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Federal Facilities Corporation

Ex. Ord. No. 10539, eff. June 22, 1954, 19 F.R. 3827, designated the Federal Facilities Corporation to perform and exercise the functions formerly performed and exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under act June 28, 1947, set out as a note above. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which was created by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, act Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, 47 Stat. 5, was subsequently abolished by section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The Federal Facilities Corporation was, in turn, dissolved by Pub. L. 87–190, §6, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 419, effective Sept. 30, 1961, formerly set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the former Appendix to this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

2 See References in Text note below.

§98e. Stockpile management

(a) Presidential powers

The President shall—

(1) acquire the materials determined under section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials;

(2) provide for the proper storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile;

(3) provide for the upgrading, refining, or processing of any material in the stockpile (notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material) when necessary to convert such material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency;

(4) provide for the rotation of any material in the stockpile when necessary to prevent deterioration or technological obsolescence of such material by replacement of such material with an equivalent quantity of substantially the same material or better material;

(5) provide for the appropriate recovery of any strategic and critical materials under section 98b(a) of this title that may be available from other Federal agencies, either directly as materials or embedded in excess-to-need, end-of-life items, or waste streams;

(6) subject to the notification required by subsection (d)(2), provide for the timely disposal of materials in the stockpile that (A) are excess to stockpile requirements, and (B) may cause a loss to the Government if allowed to deteriorate; and

(7) subject to the provisions of section 98d(b) of this title, dispose of materials in the stockpile the disposal of which is specifically authorized by law.

(b) Federal procurement practices

Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), acquisition of strategic and critical materials under this subchapter shall be made in accordance with established Federal procurement practices, and, except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) and in section 98f(a) of this title, disposal of strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence. To the maximum extent feasible—

(1) competitive procedures shall be used in the acquisition and disposal of such materials; and

(2) efforts shall be made in the acquisition and disposal of such materials to consult with producers and processors of such materials to avoid undue disruption of the usual markets of producers, processors, and consumers of such materials and to protect the United States against avoidable loss.

(c) Barter; use of stockpile materials as payment for expenses of acquiring, refining, processing, or rotating materials

(1) The President shall encourage the use of barter in the acquisition under subsection (a)(1) of strategic and critical materials for, and the disposal under subsection (a)(6) or (a)(7) of materials from, the stockpile when acquisition or disposal by barter is authorized by law and is practical and in the best interest of the United States.

(2) Materials in the stockpile (the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law) shall be available for transfer at fair market value as payment for expenses (including transportation and other incidental expenses) of acquisition of materials, or of upgrading, refining, processing, or rotating materials, under this subchapter.

(3) Notwithstanding section 98b(c) of this title or any other provision of law, whenever the President provides under subsection (a)(3) for the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile to convert that material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency, the President may barter a portion of the same material (or any other material in the stockpile that is authorized for disposal) to finance that upgrading, refining, or processing.

(4) To the extent otherwise authorized by law, property owned by the United States may be bartered for materials needed for the stockpile.

(d) Waiver; notification of proposed disposal of materials

(1) The President may waive the applicability of any provision of the first sentence of subsection (b) to any acquisition of material for, or disposal of material from, the stockpile. Whenever the President waives any such provision with respect to any such acquisition or disposal, or whenever the President determines that the application of paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection to a particular acquisition or disposal is not feasible, the President shall notify the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in writing of the proposed acquisition or disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such acquisition or disposal and shall include in such notification the reasons for not complying with any provision of such subsection.

(2) Materials in the stockpile may be disposed of under subsection (a)(6) only if such congressional committees are notified in writing of the proposed disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such disposal.

(e) Leasehold interests in property

The President may acquire leasehold interests in property, for periods not in excess of twenty years, for storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile.

(f) Loan of stockpile materials

The President may loan stockpile materials to the Department of Energy or the military departments if the President—

(1) has a reasonable assurance that stockpile materials of a similar or superior quantity and quality to the materials loaned will be returned to the stockpile or paid for;

(2) notifies the congressional defense committees (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10), in writing, not less than 30 days before making any such loan; and

(3) includes in the written notification under paragraph (2) sufficient support for the assurance described in paragraph (1).

(g) Pilot program to use commercial best practices in acquiring and disposing of strategic and critical materials

(1) The National Defense Stockpile Manager shall establish a pilot program to use, to the maximum extent practicable, commercial best practices in the acquisition and disposal of strategic and critical materials for the stockpile.

(2)(A) The Stockpile Manager shall brief the congressional defense committees (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10)—

(i) as soon as practicable after the establishment of the pilot program under paragraph (1); and

(ii) annually thereafter until the termination of the pilot program under paragraph (3).


(B) The briefing required by subparagraph (A)(i) shall address—

(i) the commercial best practices selected for use under the pilot program;

(ii) how the Stockpile Manager determined which commercial best practices to select; and

(iii) the plan of the Stockpile Manager for using such practices.


(C) Each briefing required by subparagraph (A)(ii) shall provide a summary of—

(i) how the Stockpile Manager has used commercial best practices under the pilot program during the year preceding the briefing;

(ii) how many times the Stockpile Manager has used such practices;

(iii) the outcome of each use of such practices; and

(iv) any savings achieved or lessons learned as a result of the use of such practices.


(3) The pilot program established under paragraph (1) shall terminate effective on the date that is 5 years after December 22, 2023.

(h) Ensuring programs achieve positive cash flow

Except to the extent necessary for the national defense, the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall ensure that each program for the recovery of strategic and critical materials implemented under subsection (a)(5) operates in a manner designed to achieve positive cash flow.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), (c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXIII, §3306, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2058; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title XIV, §§1411(1), 1412, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 2018; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(b), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 523.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98e, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, 53 Stat. 812; May 28, 1941, ch. 135, 55 Stat. 206; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; Ex. Ord. No. 9809, eff. Dec. 12, 1946, 11 F.R. 14281; Ex. Ord. No. 9841, eff. Apr. 23, 1947, 12 F.R. 2645; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §105, 63 Stat. 381; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to transfer of surplus materials to stock piles, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98c(b) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98b of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(b)(1), substituted "from other Federal agencies, either directly as materials or embedded in excess-to-need, end-of-life items, or waste streams;" for "from excess materials made available for recovery purposes by other Federal agencies;".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(b)(2), substituted "subsection (a)(6) or (a)(7)" for "subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6)".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(b)(3), substituted "subsection (a)(6)" for "subsection (a)(5)".

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(b)(4), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

2021—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 117–81, §1411(1), inserted "to consult with producers and processors of such materials" before "to avoid".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 117–81, §1412, added subsec. (f).

2013—Subsec. (a)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 113–66 added par. (5) and redesignated former pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively.

1999—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–85, in first sentence, substituted "strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence" for "materials from the stockpile shall be made by formal advertising or competitive negotiation procedures".

1996—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(b), substituted "45 days" for "thirty days".

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(A), substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(c), substituted "45 days" for "thirty days".

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(B), substituted "such congressional committees" for "the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted "or technological obsolescence" after "deterioration".

1991—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted before semicolon "or better material".

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(1), substituted "upgrading, refining," for "refining", inserted "(notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material)" after "stockpile", and substituted "storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency" for "storage and subsequent disposition".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(2), inserted "under subsection (a)(1)" after "the acquisition" and "under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6)" after "the disposal".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(3), substituted "(the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law)" for ", the disposition of which is authorized by law," and "of upgrading, refining" for "of refining".

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(a), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(1), inserted "and" at end of par. (1), substituted a period for "; and" at end of par. (2), and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "disposal of such materials shall be made for domestic consumption."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(2), substituted "paragraph (1) or (2)" for "paragraph (1), (2), or (3)".

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "a form more" for "the form most".

1981—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted reference to section 98d(b) of this title.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Acquisition of Depleted Uranium for National Defense Stockpile

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8095, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1896, directed President, using funds available in National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund, to acquire over a period of ten years from current domestic sources not less than thirty-six million pounds of depleted uranium to be held in National Defense Stockpile, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8027A, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1177.


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98e–1. Transferred


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6A, as added Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), 100 Stat. 4067; amended Dec. 4, 1987, Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), 101 Stat. 1246, which related to National Defense Stockpile Manager, was transferred to section 98h–7 of this title.

§98e–2. Multiyear procurement authority for domestically processed critical minerals

(a) Authority for multiyear procurement

Subject to section 3501 of title 10 and from amounts made available by discretionary appropriations Acts from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund (as established under section 9(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h(a))) after December 22, 2023, the Secretary of Defense may enter into one or more multiyear contracts for the procurement of critical minerals that are processed in the United States by domestic sources.

(b) Application of Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act

A multiyear contract entered into under this section shall be deemed to be an acquisition under the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.).

(c) Authority for advance procurement

The Secretary of Defense may enter into one or more contracts, beginning in fiscal year 2024, for advance procurement associated with the domestically processed critical minerals for which authorization to enter into a multiyear procurement contract is provided under subsection (a).

(d) Condition for out-year contract payments

A contract entered into under subsection (a) shall provide that any obligation of the United States to make a payment under the contract for a fiscal year after fiscal year 2024 is subject to the availability of appropriations or funds for that purpose for such later fiscal year.

(e) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The term "critical mineral" means a mineral determined to be a strategic and critical material under section 3(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98b(a)).

(2) The term "processed" means the processing or recycling of a critical mineral or magnet, including the separation, reduction, metallization, alloying, milling, pressing, strip casting, and sintering of a critical mineral.

(3) The term "domestic source" has the meaning given that term in section 4552 of this title.

(Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title I, §152, Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 180.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319, which is classified generally to this subchapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2024, and not as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§98f. Special Presidential disposal authority

(a) Materials in the stockpile may be released for use, sale, or other disposition—

(1) on the order of the President, at any time the President determines the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense;

(2) in time of war declared by the Congress or during a national emergency, on the order of any officer or employee of the United States designated by the President to have authority to issue disposal orders under this subsection, if such officer or employee determines that the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense; and

(3) on the order of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, if the President has designated the Under Secretary to have authority to issue release orders under this subsection and, in the case of any such order, if the Under Secretary determines that the release of such materials is required for use, manufacture, or production for purposes of national defense.


(b) Any order issued under subsection (a) shall be promptly reported by the President, or by the officer or employee issuing such order, in writing, to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1413(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, §902(90), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1554.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98f, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 599, related to investigations of domestic ores, minerals, and agriculture resources for purposes of development, etc., prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 116–92 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics".

2013—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–239 added par. (3).

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

§98g. Materials development and research

(a) Development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances

(1) The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances that (A) are found in the United States, its territories or possessions, or in a reliable source 1 (B) are essential to the national defense, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States, and (C) are found in known domestic sources in inadequate quantities or grades.

(2) Such investigations shall be carried out in order to develop new sources of strategic and critical materials, develop substitutes, or conserve domestic sources and reliable sources of supply for such strategic and critical materials.


(3) Investigations under paragraph (1) may be carried out on public lands and, with the consent of the owner, on privately owned lands for the purpose of exploring and determining the extent and quality of deposits of such minerals, the most suitable methods of mining and beneficiating such minerals, and the cost at which the minerals or metals may be produced.

(b) Development of sources of supplies of agricultural materials; use of agricultural commodities for manufacture of materials

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations of the feasibility of developing domestic sources of supplies of any agricultural material or for using agricultural commodities for the manufacture of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material or substitutes therefor.

(c) Development of sources of supply of other materials; development or use of alternative methods for refining or processing materials in stockpile

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the feasibility of—

(1) developing domestic sources of supply of materials (other than materials referred to in subsections (a) and (b)) determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials; and

(2) developing or using alternative methods for the refining or processing of a material in the stockpile so as to convert such material into a form more suitable for use during an emergency or for storage.

(d) Grants and contracts to encourage conservation of strategic and critical materials

The President shall encourage the conservation of domestic sources of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material by making grants or awarding contracts for research regarding the development of—

(1) substitutes for such material; or

(2) more efficient methods of production or use of such material.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1686; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(e)(2)(B), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 527.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98g, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600; amended 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, authorized appropriations for procurement, transportation, maintenance, rotation, storage, and refining or processing of materials acquired under this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98d(c) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(e)(2)(B)(i), substituted "its territories or possessions, or in a reliable source" for "or in its territories or possessions,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(e)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "in order to develop new sources of strategic and critical materials, develop substitutes, or conserve domestic sources and reliable sources of supply for such strategic and critical materials." for "in order to—

"(A) determine and develop new domestic sources of supply of such ores and mineral substances;

"(B) devise new methods for the treatment and utilization of lower grade reserves of such ores and mineral substances; and

"(C) develop substitutes for such essential ores and mineral products."

1989—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 101–189 added subsecs. (c) and (d).


Executive Documents

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (a) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Interior and functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of Agriculture by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§98h. National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a separate fund to be known as the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "fund").

(b) Fund operations

(1) All moneys received from the sale of materials in the stockpile under paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title 1 shall be covered into the fund.

(2) Subject to section 98d(a)(1) of this title, moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) are hereby made available (subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriation Acts) for the following purposes:

(A) The acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a) of this title.

(B) Transportation, storage, and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal.

(C) Development of current specifications of stockpile materials and the upgrading of existing stockpile materials to meet current specifications (including transportation, when economical, related to such upgrading).

(D) Encouraging the appropriate conservation of strategic and critical materials.

(E) Testing and quality studies of stockpile materials.

(F) Studying future material and mobilization requirements for the stockpile.

(G) Activities authorized under section 98h–6 of this title.

(H) Contracting under competitive procedures for materials development and research to—

(i) improve the quality and availability of materials stockpiled from time to time in the stockpile; and

(ii) develop new materials for the stockpile.


(I) Improvement or rehabilitation of facilities, structures, and infrastructure needed to maintain the integrity of stockpile materials.

(J) Disposal of hazardous materials that are stored in the stockpile and authorized for disposal by law.

(K) Performance of environmental remediation, restoration, waste management, or compliance activities at locations of the stockpile that are required under a Federal law or are undertaken by the Government under an administrative decision or negotiated agreement.

(L) Pay of employees of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(M) Other expenses of the National Defense Stockpile program.


(3) Moneys in the fund shall remain available until expended.

(c) Moneys received from sale of materials being rotated or disposed of

All moneys received from the sale of materials being rotated under the provisions of section 98e(a)(4) of this title or disposed of under section 98f(a) of this title shall be covered into the fund and shall be available only for the acquisition of replacement materials.

(d) Effect of bartering

If, during a fiscal year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager barters materials in the stockpile for the purpose of acquiring, upgrading, refining, or processing other materials (or for services directly related to that purpose), the contract value of the materials so bartered shall—

(1) be applied toward the total value of materials that are authorized to be disposed of from the stockpile during that fiscal year;

(2) be treated as an acquisition for purposes of satisfying any requirement imposed on the National Defense Stockpile Manager to enter into obligations during that fiscal year under subsection (b)(2); and

(3) not increase or decrease the balance in the fund.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3204, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1845; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2264; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), were redesignated as paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 98e(a) of this title by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98h, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600, related to disposition of receipts, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h(b)(1) of this title.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(2)(D) to (M). Pub. L. 113–66 added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpars. (D) to (L) as (E) to (M), respectively.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(J) to (L). Pub. L. 105–261 added subpar. (J) and redesignated former subpars. (J) and (K) as (K) and (L), respectively.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(J), (K). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(a), added subpars. (J) and (K).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(b), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding paragraph (2), moneys in the fund may not be used to pay salaries and expenses of stockpile employees."

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(1), inserted ", maintenance, and disposal" after "acquisition" and substituted "section 98e(a)" for "section 98e(a)(1)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(2), substituted "such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal" for "such acquisition".

Subsec. (b)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(b), added subpars. (H) and (I).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(c), added par. (4).

1991—Subsec. (b)(2)(G). Pub. L. 102–190 added subpar. (G).

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–510 added subsec. (d).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 101–189 added subpar. (F).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out subpar. (F) which related to other reasonable requirements for management of stockpile.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(1), struck out "Such moneys shall remain in the fund until appropriated." after "covered into the fund."

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(2), added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which read as follows:

"(2) Moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) shall be available, when appropriated therefor, only for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a)(1) of this title (and for transportation related to such acquisition).

"(3) Moneys in the fund, when appropriated, shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts."

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35 in par. (1) struck out provisions relating to moneys remaining in the fund at the end of the third fiscal year following the fiscal year in which received, and in par. (3) substituted provisions respecting funds remaining available until expended, for provisions relating to funds remaining available for a period of five fiscal years.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Use of Funds From National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund To Meet National Defense Stockpile Goals and Specifications in Effect on October 1, 1984

Pub. L. 100–440, title V, §518, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1748, directed that, no later than Oct. 1, 1989, Administrator of General Services, or any Federal officer assuming Administrator's responsibilities with respect to management of the stockpile, to use all funds authorized and appropriated before Jan. 1, 1985, from National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund to evaluate, test, relocate, upgrade or purchase stockpile materials to meet National Defense Stockpile goals and specifications in effect on Oct. 1, 1984. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(m) [title V, §519], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329-417.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783-326, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341-326.

Deposit of Funds Accruing From Naval Petroleum Reserves

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §905, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2574, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, authorized the deposit into the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund, established under this section, of 30 percent of all money accruing to the United States during fiscal years 1985 and 1986 from lands in the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves.

1 See References in Text note below.

§98h–1. Strategic and Critical Materials Board of Directors

(a) Establishment

There is established a Strategic and Critical Materials Board of Directors (in this subchapter referred to as the "Board").

(b) Members

The Board shall be composed, at a minimum, of the following:

(1) The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Industrial Base Policy, who shall serve as chairman of the Board.

(2) One designee of each of the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Energy, and the Secretary of the Interior.

(3) One designee of each of the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Readiness Subcommittee of the House Committee on Armed Services.

(4) One designee of each of the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Readiness Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Armed Services.

(5) Four designees of the chairman of the Board, who shall have expertise relating to military affairs, defense procurement, production of strategic and critical materials, finance, or any other disciplines deemed necessary by the chairman to conduct the business of the Board.

(c) Duties of the Board

In addition to other matters assigned to it by the chairman, the Board shall conduct the following, without power of delegation:

(1) Adopt by-laws that ensure sufficient oversight, governance, and effectiveness of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(2) Elect or remove Board members.

(3) Advise the National Defense Stockpile Manager.

(4) Establish performance metrics and conduct an annual performance review of the management and operations of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(5) Review and approve the annual budget of the National Defense Stockpile program and conduct appropriate reviews of annual financial statements.

(6) Re-allocate budget resources within the annual budget of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(7) Review and approve the Annual Materials and Operations Plan required by section 98h–2(a) of this title. The report required by section 98h–2(b)(2) of this title shall include the views and recommendations of the Board on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisition of materials for and disposals of materials from the stockpile.

(8) Complete and submit the annual Board Report, in accordance with section 98h–2(b)(2) of this title.

(9) Recommend to the Secretary of Defense—

(A) a strategy to ensure a secure supply of materials designated as critical to national security; and

(B) such other strategies as the Board considers appropriate to strengthen the industrial base with respect to materials critical to national security.

(d) Board meetings

The Board shall meet as determined necessary by the chairman but not less frequently than once every year to fulfill the duties described in subsection (c).

(e) Application of provisions relating to Federal advisory committees

Section 1013(a) of title 5 shall not apply to the Board.

(f) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Materials critical to national security

The term "materials critical to national security" means materials—

(A) upon which the production or sustainment of military equipment is dependent; and

(B) the supply of which could be restricted by actions or events outside the control of the Government of the United States.

(2) Military equipment

The term "military equipment" means equipment used directly by the Armed Forces to carry out military operations.

(3) Secure supply

The term "secure supply", with respect to a material, means the availability of a source or sources for the material, including the full supply chain for the material and components containing the material.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1411(b), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2869; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(c), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 524.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, was renumbered section 13 and is classified to section 98h–4 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 187 of Title 10, Armed Forces, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 117–263, §1411(a).

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(c)(1)(A), substituted "of the management and operations of the National Defense Stockpile program" for "of the National Defense Stockpile Manager".

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(c)(1)(B), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (5) and (6), respectively, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "Set compensation for the National Defense Stockpile Manager."

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(c)(1)(B), (C), redesignated par. (8) as (7) and substituted "required by section 98h–2(a) of this title. The report required by section 98h–2(b)(2) of this title shall include the views and recommendations of the Board on" for "required by section 98h–2(a)(2) of this title, including a review of" and "all acquisition of materials for and disposals of materials from the stockpile" for "proposed actions to be taken under the Annual Materials and Operations Plan". Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (c)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(c)(1)(B), redesignated pars. (9) and (10) as (8) and (9), respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(c)(2), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Board."

2022Pub. L. 117–263 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to appointment of advisory committees and a Market Impact Committee.

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484 added subsec. (c).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Advisory Committee Regarding Operation and Modernization of Stockpile

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3306, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2652, required the President to appoint, no later than Mar. 15, 1993, an advisory committee to make recommendations concerning the operation and modernization of the National Defense Stockpile.

§98h–2. Reports

(a) Reports to the Board

The National Defense Stockpile Manager shall submit to the Board an Annual Materials and Operations Plan for the forthcoming year.

(b) Reports to Congress

(1) Report by National Defense Stockpile Manager

Not later than February 15 of each fiscal year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall submit to the congressional defense committees (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10) an Annual Operations and Materials Plan that shall include—

(A) information with respect to foreign and domestic purchases of materials for the stockpile during the preceding fiscal year;

(B) information with respect to the acquisition and disposal of materials under this subchapter by barter, during such fiscal year;

(C) information with respect to the activities by the National Defense Stockpile Manager to encourage the conservation, substitution, and development of strategic and critical materials;

(D) information with respect to the research and development activities conducted under section 98g of this title;

(E) a statement and explanation of the financial status of the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund and anticipated appropriations to be made to the Fund, and obligations to be made from the fund, during the current fiscal year;

(F) other pertinent information on the administration of this subchapter as will enable the Congress to evaluate the effectiveness of the program;

(G) an annual materials plan for the operation of the stockpile during the next fiscal year and the succeeding four fiscal years and planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund and anticipated receipts from disposal of stockpile materials, which shall include—

(i) details of all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund during such period and of anticipated receipts from the proposed disposals of stockpile materials during such period;

(ii) details regarding materials development and research projects to be conducted during the fiscal years covered by the report using moneys in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund pursuant to section 98h(b)(2)(G) of this title; and

(iii) with respect to each development and research project described in clause (ii), the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used;


(H) any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate; and

(I) a summary of the implementation and findings of the pilot program established under section 98e(g)(1) of this title, including—

(i) the commercial best practices selected for use under the pilot program;

(ii) how the National Defense Stockpile Manager determined which commercial best practices to select;

(iii) how the National Defense Stockpile Manager has used commercial best practices under the pilot program during the year preceding the briefing;

(iv) the outcome of each use of such practices; and

(v) any savings achieved or lessons learned as a result of the use of such practices.

(2) Report by the Board

The Board shall prepare a written report to accompany the report required by paragraph (1) which shall include the activities of the Board to carry out the duties listed in section 98h–1(c) of this title 1

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(e), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(3), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3205, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1503, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2086; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3311(b), 3313(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §204(d), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(j), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3512; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XIV, §1423, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2093; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1411(c), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2870; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(d), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 524.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 11 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, formerly §10, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, was set out as a Short Title note under section 98 of this title, prior to repeal by section 2(b)(2) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98c of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2023—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(d)(1), substituted "an Annual Materials and Operations Plan for the forthcoming year." for "the following:

"(1) Not later than 40 calendar days after the last day of each of the first three fiscal quarters in each fiscal year, unaudited financial statements and a Manager's Discussion and Analysis for the immediately preceding fiscal quarter.

"(2) Not later than 60 calendar days after the conclusion of the fourth quarter of each fiscal year—

"(A) audited financial statements and a Manager's Discussion and Analysis for the immediately preceding fiscal year; and

"(B) an Annual Materials and Operations Plan for the forthcoming year."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(d)(2)(A)(i), (ii), in heading, substituted "Report by National Defense Stockpile Manager" for "Reports by National Defense Stockpile Manage" and, in introductory provisions, substituted "February 15 of each fiscal year" for "90 days after the conclusion of the fourth quarter of each fiscal year" and "an Annual Operations and Materials Plan" for "a report".

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(d)(2)(A)(iii), amended subpar. (E) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (E) read as follows: "audited annual financial statements for the Strategic and Critical Materials Fund;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(G) to (I). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(d)(2)(A)(iv), added subpars. (G) to (I) and struck out former subpars. (G) and (H) which read as follows:

"(G) details of all planned expenditures from the Strategic and Critical Materials Fund over the Future Years' Defense Program and anticipated receipts from proposed disposals of stockpile materials; and

"(H) the report required by paragraph (2)."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 118–31, §1411(d)(2)(B), substituted "paragraph (1) which shall include the activities of the Board to carry out the duties listed in section 98h–1(c) of this title" for "paragraph (1) which shall include—

"(A) the activities of the Board to carry out the duties listed in section 98h–1(c) of this title; and

"(B) the most recent Annual Materials and Operations Plan submitted under subsection (a)(2)(B)."

2022Pub. L. 117–263 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to annual reports to Congress, including materials plans for the operation of the stockpile.

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232, §1423(1), substituted "February 15" for "January 15" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–232, §1423(2)(A), substituted "Each report under subsection (a) shall also include" for "Not later than February 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the appropriate committees of the Congress a report containing".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §1423(2)(B), substituted "With respect to the plan described in paragraph (1), each such report shall include" for "Each such report shall include" and "With respect to such plan, each report shall also contain" for "Each such report shall also contain".

2014—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "under section 98h(b)(2)(H)" for "under section 98h(b)(2)(G)".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–35 substituted "fiscal year" for "six-month period".

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(1), substituted "Not later than January 15 of each year, the President" for "The President" and "an annual" for "every six months a".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(2), which directed the substitution of "fiscal year" for "6-month period", could not be executed because the words "6-month period" did not appear in text.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(3), substituted "fiscal year" for "period".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(4), substituted "current fiscal year" for "next fiscal year".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated first sentence of subsec. (b) relating to submission of report as par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b), designated second sentence of subsec. (b) relating to contents of report as par. (2) and inserted at end "Each such report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(G) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated third sentence of subsec. (b) relating to resubmission of proposed expenditures and disposals not obligated or executed as par. (3).

1989—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted "made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund," for "made from the fund".

1988—Subsec. (a)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(a), added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(b), substituted "the next fiscal year" for "such fiscal year" and "all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund" for "planned expenditures for acquisition of strategic and critical materials" and inserted at end "Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate."

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180 substituted "Not later than February 15 of each year, the President" for "The President" and struck out "each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year," after "Congress".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year," for each year with the Budget submitted to Congress pursuant to section 201a of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 11(a)), for the next fiscal year".

1981Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§98h–3. Definitions

For the purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The term "strategic and critical materials" means materials that (A) would be needed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States during a national emergency, and (B) are not found or produced in the United States in sufficient quantities to meet such need.

(2) The term "national emergency" means a general declaration of emergency with respect to the national defense made by the President or by the Congress.

(3) The term "reliable source" mean a citizen or business entity organized under the laws of—

(A) the United States or any territory or possession of the United States;

(B) a country of the national technology and industrial base, as such term is defined in section 4801 of title 10; or

(C) a qualifying country, as defined in section 225.003 of the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement or any successor document.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §12, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title XIV, §1411(2), Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 2018; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(e)(2)(C), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 528.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2023—Par. (3). Pub. L. 118–31 added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "The term 'national technology and industrial base' has the meaning given such term in section 2500 of title 10."

2021—Par. (3). Pub. L. 117–81 added par. (3).

§98h–4. Importation of strategic and critical materials

The President may not prohibit or regulate the importation into the United States of any material determined to be strategic and critical pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter, if such material is the product of any foreign country or area not listed in general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), for so long as the importation into the United States of material of that kind which is the product of a country or area listed in such general note is not prohibited by any provision of law.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §13, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(2), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427; renumbered §13, Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(1), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(b), (c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(o), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in text, is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 98h–1 of this title.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "not listed in general note" for "not listed as a Communist-dominated country or area in general note" and "product of a country or area listed in such general note" for "product of such Communist-dominated countries or areas".

1988Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 3(d) of the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

1987Pub. L. 100–180 inserted section catchline and, in text, substituted "The President" for "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, on and after January 1, 1972, the President".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

§98h–5. Biennial report on stockpile requirements

(a) In general

Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on stockpile requirements. Each such report shall include—

(1) the Secretary's recommendations with respect to stockpile requirements; and

(2) the matters required under subsection (b).

(b) National emergency planning assumptions

Each report under this section shall set forth the national emergency planning assumptions used by the Secretary in making the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements. The Secretary shall base the national emergency planning assumptions on a military conflict scenario consistent with the scenario used by the Secretary in budgeting and defense planning purposes. The assumptions to be set forth include assumptions relating to each of the following:

(1) The length and intensity of the assumed military conflict.

(2) The military force structure to be mobilized.

(3) The losses anticipated from enemy action.

(4) The military, industrial, and essential civilian requirements to support the national emergency.

(5) The availability of supplies of strategic and critical materials from foreign sources during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(6) The domestic production of strategic and critical materials during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(7) Civilian austerity measures required during the mobilization period and military conflict.

(c) Period within which to replace or replenish materials

The stockpile requirements shall be based on those strategic and critical materials necessary for the United States to replenish or replace, within three years of the end of the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), all munitions, combat support items, and weapons systems that would be required after such a military conflict.

(d) Effect of alternative mobilization periods

The Secretary shall also include in each report under this section an examination of the effect that alternative mobilization periods under the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), as well as a range of other military conflict scenarios addressing potentially more serious threats to national security, would have on the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements.

(e) Plans of President

The President shall submit with each report under this section a statement of the plans of the President for meeting the recommendations of the Secretary set forth in the report.

(f) Briefings on shortfalls in stockpile

(1) Not later than March 1 each year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall provide to the congressional defense committees a briefing on strategic and critical materials that—

(A) are determined to be in shortfall in the most recent report on stockpile requirements submitted under subsection (a); and

(B) the acquisition or disposal of which is included in the Annual Materials and Operations Plan for the operation of the stockpile during the next fiscal year submitted under section 98h–2(b) of this title.


(2) Each briefing required by paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) a description of each material described in that paragraph, including the objective to be achieved if funding is provided, in whole or in part, for the acquisition of the material to remedy the shortfall;

(B) an estimate of additional amounts required to provide such funding, if any; and

(C) an assessment of the supply chain for each such material, including any assessment of any relevant risk in any such supply chain.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §14, as added Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(b)(1), (2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2856; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1413, Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2872.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The congressional defense committees, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), are not defined for this subchapter. However, elsewhere in this subchapter, they are defined as the committees listed in section 101(a) of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Amendments

2022—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 117–263 added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsecs. (b) to (d), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e), and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to national emergency planning assumptions set forth in reports required under this section.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160 struck out before period at end of first sentence ", based upon total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years" and inserted after first sentence "Before October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based upon the total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years. On and after October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based on an assumed national emergency involving military conflict that necessitates an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States."

1991Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(2), substituted "Biennial" for "Annual" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary" for "The Secretary" and "a report" for "an annual report" and struck out "shall be submitted with the annual report submitted under section 98h–2(b) of this title and" before "shall include".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3311(c) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 98a of this title.

Initial Report Due Date

Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(b)(3), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585, provided that: "The first report required by section 14(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–5(a)), as amended by paragraph (1) shall be submitted not later than January 15, 1993."

§98h–6. Development and conservation of reliable sources

(a) Duties

Subject to subsection (d), the National Defense Stockpile Manager shall encourage the development and appropriate conservation of reliable sources of strategic and critical materials—

(1) by purchasing, or making a commitment to purchase, strategic and critical materials from reliable sources when such materials are needed for the stockpile;

(2) by contracting with facilities located in and owned and controlled by reliable sources, or making a commitment to contract with such facilities, for the processing or refining of strategic and critical materials in the stockpile when processing or refining is necessary to convert such materials into a form more suitable for storage or disposition or meeting stockpile requirements;

(3) by qualifying facilities located in and owned and controlled by reliable sources, or qualifying strategic and critical materials produced by such facilities, to meet stockpile requirements;

(4) by contracting with facilities located in and owned and controlled by reliable sources to recycle strategic and critical materials to meet stockpile requirements or increase the balance of the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund under section 98h of this title; and

(5) by entering into an agreement to co-fund a bankable feasibility study for a project for the development of strategic and critical materials located in and owned and controlled by a reliable source, if the agreement—

(A) limits the liability of the stockpile to not more than the total funding provided by the Federal Government;

(B) limits the funding contribution of the Federal Government to not more than 50 percent of the cost of the bankable feasibility study; and

(C) does not obligate the Federal Government to purchase strategic and critical materials from the reliable source.

(b) Additional authorities

(1) Extended contracting authority

(A) In general

The term of a contract or commitment made under subsection (a) may not exceed ten years.

(B) Preexisting contracts

A contract entered into before December 22, 2023, for a term of more than ten years may be extended, on or after December 22, 2023, for a total of not more than an additional ten years pursuant to any option or options set forth in the contract.

(2) Matters relating to co-funding of bankable feasibility studies

To the extent authorized by Congress pursuant to the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.) and determined to be required by the President pursuant to that Act, the National Defense Stockpile Manager may provide for loans or procure debt issued by other entities to carry out a project for the development of strategic and critical materials with respect to which a study was carried out under subsection (a)(5).

(c) Proposed transactions included in annual materials plan

Descriptions of proposed transactions under subsection (a) shall be included in the Annual Materials and Operations Plan. Changes to any such transaction, or the addition of a transaction not included in such plan, shall be made in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title.

(d) Availability of funds

The authority of the National Defense Stockpile Manager to enter into obligations under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that funds in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund under section 98h of this title are adequate to meet such obligations.

(e) Bankable feasibility study defined

In this section, the term "bankable feasibility study" means a comprehensive technical and economic study—

(1) of the selected option for a strategic and critical materials development project that includes appropriately detailed assessments of realistically assumed extraction, processing, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social, and governmental considerations and any other relevant operational factors and detailed financial analysis, that are necessary to demonstrate at the time of reporting that production is reasonably justified; and

(2) that may reasonably serve as the basis for a final decision by a proponent of a project or financial institution to proceed with, or finance, the development of the project.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §15, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1687; amended Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1412(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570; Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title XIV, §1411(3), Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 2018; Pub. L. 117–263, div. A, title XIV, §1411(d)(1)(B), Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 2871; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIV, §1411(e)(1), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 526.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Defense Production Act of 1950, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, 64 Stat. 798, which is classified principally to chapter 55 (§4501 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 4501 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2023Pub. L. 118–31 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to development of domestic sources for materials.

2022—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 117–263, §1411(d)(1)(B)(i), substituted "Annual Materials and Operations Plan" for "annual materials plan".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 117–263, §1411(d)(1)(B)(ii), inserted ", acting through the National Defense Stockpile Manager," after "The President" and substituted "section 98h–2(b)(1) of this title" for "section 98h–2(a) of this title".

2021—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 117–81 added par. (5).

2016—Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–328 added pars. (3) and (4).

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–66 inserted "and appropriate conservation" after "development" in introductory provisions.

§98h–7. National Defense Stockpile Manager

(a) Appointment

The President shall designate a single Federal office to have responsibility for performing the functions of the President under this subchapter, other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title. The office designated shall be one to which appointment is made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Title of designated officer

The individual holding the office designated by the President under subsection (a) shall be known for purposes of functions under this subchapter as the "National Defense Stockpile Manager".

(c) Delegation of functions

The President may delegate functions of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title) only to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. Any such delegation made by the President shall remain in effect until specifically revoked by law or Executive order. The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §16, formerly §6A, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; renumbered §16 and amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1413(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2049.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was classified to section 98e–1 of this title prior to its renumbering by Pub. L. 101–189.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4" for "sections 98f and 98h–4" wherever appearing.

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–190 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "During any period during which there is no officer appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving in the position designated by the President under subsection (a) or during which the authority of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title) has not been delegated to that position, no action may be taken under section 98e(a)(6) of this title."

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (2), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4" and inserted at end "The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title." after "Executive order."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (3), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4" and "section 98e(a)(6)" for "section 98e(b) or 98e(d)".

1987Pub. L. 100–180 amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of subsecs. (a) and (b) and adding subsecs. (c) and (d).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247, provided that: "Unless otherwise directed by the President under section 6A [renumbered §16] of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [this section], as amended by subsection (a), the designation of a National Defense Stockpile Manager in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987] shall remain in effect until the individual so designated ceases to hold the office held by the individual at the time of the designation."

Deadline for Designation of Manager

Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067, directed President, not later than Feb. 15, 1987, to designate an official as National Defense Stockpile Manager, as required by this section.


Executive Documents

Designation of National Defense Stockpile Manager; Delegation of Functions

The Secretary of Defense was designated National Defense Stockpile Manager and functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98i. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, §36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570

Section, act Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 939, title IV, §416, 70 Stat. 1018, related to contracts for storage, handling, and distribution of liquid fuels. See section 2922 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§99. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 2, 1940, ch. 508, §6, 54 Stat. 714, was transferred to section 701 of the former Appendix to this title and subsequently repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§100. Nitrate plants

(a) Investigations; designation of sites; construction and operation of dams, locks, improvements to navigation, etc.

The President of the United States may make, or cause to be made, such investigation as in his judgment is necessary to determine the best, cheapest, and most available means for the production of nitrates and other products for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products by water power or any other power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest to use; and is also authorized to designate for the exclusive use of the United States, if in his judgment such means is best and cheapest, such site or sites, upon any navigable or nonnavigable river or rivers or upon the public lands, as in his opinion will be necessary for national defense; and is further authorized to construct, maintain, and operate, at or on any site or sites so designated, dams, locks, improvements to navigation, power houses, and other plants and equipment or other means than water power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest, necessary or convenient for the generation of electrical or other power and for the production of nitrates or other products needed for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products.

(b) Lease, purchase, or acquisition of lands and rights of way; purchase or acquisition of materials, minerals, and processes

The President is authorized to lease, buy, or acquire, by condemnation, gift, grant, or devise, such lands and rights of way as may be necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and to take from any lands of the United States, or to buy or acquire by condemnation materials, minerals, and processes, patented or otherwise, necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and for the manufacture of such products.

(c) Use of products of plants; disposal of surplus

The products of such plants shall be used by the President for military and naval purposes to the extent that he may deem necessary, and any surplus which he shall determine is not required shall be sold and disposed of by him under such regulations as he may prescribe.

(d) Employment of officers, agents, or agencies

The President is authorized to employ such officers, agents, or agencies as may in his discretion be necessary to enable him to carry out the purposes herein specified, and to authorize and require such officers, agents, or agencies to perform any and all of the duties imposed upon him by the provisions hereof.

(e) Government construction and operation

The plant or plants provided for under this section shall be constructed and operated solely by the Government and not in conjunction with any other industry or enterprise carried on by private capital.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §37, 70A Stat. 634.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§100a. Omitted


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section, which was from the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1983, Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §712], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1833, 1851, prohibited use of funds available to Department of Defense agencies for acquisition, construction, or operation of certain scrap-processing facilities, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Dec. 29, 1981, Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §712, 95 Stat. 1580.

Dec. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–527, title VII, §713, 94 Stat. 3082.

Dec. 21, 1979, Pub. L. 96–154, title VII, §713, 93 Stat. 1154.

Oct. 13, 1978, Pub. L. 95–457, title VIII, §813, 92 Stat. 1246.

Sept. 21, 1977, Pub. L. 95–111, title VIII, §812, 91 Stat. 901.

Sept. 22, 1976, Pub. L. 94–419, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 1293.

Feb. 9, 1976, Pub. L. 94–212, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 170.

Oct. 8, 1974, Pub. L. 93–437, title VIII, §812, 88 Stat. 1226.

Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–238, title VII, §712, 87 Stat. 1040.

Oct. 26, 1972, Pub. L. 92–570, title VII, §712, 86 Stat. 1198.

Dec. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–204, title VII, §712, 85 Stat. 729.

Jan. 11, 1971, Pub. L. 91–668, title VIII, §812, 84 Stat. 2032.

Dec. 29, 1969, Pub. L. 91–171, title VI, §612, 83 Stat. 481.

Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–580, title V, §511, 82 Stat. 1131.

Sept. 29, 1967, Pub. L. 90–96, title VI, §611, 81 Stat. 244.

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–687, title VI, §611, 80 Stat. 992.

Sept. 29, 1965, Pub. L. 89–213, title VI, §611, 79 Stat. 875.

Aug. 19, 1964, Pub. L. 88–446, title V, §511, 78 Stat. 476.

Oct. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–149, title V, §511, 77 Stat. 265.

Aug. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–577, title V, §511, 76 Stat. 329.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–144, title VI, §611, 75 Stat. 377.

July 7, 1960, Pub. L. 86–601, title V, §511, 74 Stat. 351.

Aug. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–166, title V, §611, 73 Stat. 380.

Aug. 22, 1958, Pub. L. 85–724, title VI, §611, 72 Stat. 725.

Aug. 2, 1957, Pub. L. 85–117, title VI, §612, 71 Stat. 325.

July 2, 1956, ch. 488, title VI, §612, 70 Stat. 469.

July 13, 1955, ch. 358, title VI, §615, 69 Stat. 317.

June 30, 1954, ch. 432, title VII, §715, 68 Stat. 352.