14 USC SUBTITLE II, CHAPTER 19, SUBCHAPTER I: ADMINISTRATION
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

14 USC SUBTITLE II, CHAPTER 19, SUBCHAPTER I: ADMINISTRATION
From Title 14—COAST GUARDSUBTITLE II—PERSONNELCHAPTER 19—COAST GUARD ACADEMY

SUBCHAPTER I—ADMINISTRATION


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §110(c)(1)(A), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4213, inserted subchapter I designation and heading.

§1901. Administration of Academy

The immediate government and military command of the Coast Guard Academy shall be in the Superintendent of the Academy, subject to the direction of the Commandant under the general supervision of the Secretary. The Commandant may select a superintendent from the active list of the Coast Guard who shall serve in the pleasure of the Commandant.

(Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, 63 Stat. 508, §181; renumbered §1901, Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §110(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4212.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This section does not change the present method of administration of the Academy. It makes statutory what has been administrative regulation heretofore, and it is believed highly desirable to make the control of an institution of such national interest as the Academy the subject of a statute.

This section is new. There is no provision in existing law which establishes the Academy and sets it up as an operating unit. Nor is there any provision which creates the office of Superintendent of the Academy, or prescribes his duties and functions. Heretofore this has been accomplished by regulations, and the laws which deal with the Academy assume its existence as a going institution and assume the existence of the Superintendent with certain defined functions and duties. This section continues the Academy as previously established, provides for the appointment of the Superintendent by the Commandant, and defines in general terms his functions. The Academy would thus be placed on a definite statutory basis, and the office of Superintendent would be a statutory position, but the present administration of the Academy would in no way be interfered with. 81st Congress, House Report No. 557.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–282 renumbered section 181 of this title as this section.


Statutory Notes

Coast Guard Academy Study

Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8272, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4681, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall seek to enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Public Administration not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of the [sic] this Act [Jan. 1, 2021] under which the National Academy of Public Administration shall—

"(1) conduct an assessment of the cultural competence of the Coast Guard Academy as an organization and of individuals at the Coast Guard Academy to carry out effectively the primary duties of the United States Coast Guard listed in section 102 of title 14, United States Code, when interacting with individuals of different races, ethnicities, genders, religions, sexual orientations, socioeconomic backgrounds, or from different geographic origins; and

"(2) issue recommendations based upon the findings in such assessment.

"(b) Assessment of Cultural Competence.—

"(1) Cultural competence of the coast guard academy.—The arrangement described in subsection (a) shall require the National Academy of Public Administration to, not later than 1 year after entering into an arrangement with the Secretary under subsection (a), submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the assessment described under subsection (a)(1).

"(2) &Assessment scope.—The assessment described under subsection (a)(1) shall—

"(A) describe the level of cultural competence described in subsection (a)(1) based on the National Academy of Public Administration's assessment of the Coast Guard Academy's relevant practices, policies, and structures, including an overview of discussions with faculty, staff, students, and relevant Coast Guard Academy affiliated organizations;

"(B) examine potential changes which could be used to further enhance such cultural competence by—

"(i) modifying institutional practices, policies, and structures; and

"(ii) any other changes deemed appropriate by the National Academy of Public Administration; and

"(C) make recommendations to enhance the cultural competence of the Coast Guard Academy described in subparagraph (A), including any specific plans, policies, milestones, performance measures, or other information necessary to implement such recommendations.

"(c) Final Action Memorandum.—Not later than 6 months after submission of the assessment under subsection (b)(1), the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a final action memorandum in response to all recommendations contained in the assessment. The final action memorandum shall include the rationale for accepting, accepting in part, or rejecting each recommendation, and shall specify, where applicable, actions to be taken to implement such recommendations, including an explanation of how each action enhances the ability of the Coast Guard to carry out the primary duties of the United States Coast Guard listed in section 102 of title 14, United States Code.

"(d) Plan.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the submission of the final action memorandum required under subsection (c), the Commandant, in coordination with the Chief Human Capital Officer of the Department of Homeland Security, shall submit a plan to carry out the recommendations or the parts of the recommendations accepted in the final action memorandum to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

"(2) Strategy with milestones.—If any recommendation or parts of recommendations accepted in the final action memorandum address any of the following actions, then the plan required in paragraph (1) shall include a strategy with appropriate milestones to carry out such recommendations or parts of recommendations:

"(A) Improve outreach and recruitment of a more diverse Coast Guard Academy cadet candidate pool based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and geographic origin.

"(B) Modify institutional structures, practices, and policies to foster a more diverse cadet corps body, faculty, and staff workforce based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and geographic origin.

"(C) Modify existing or establish new policies and safeguards to foster the retention of cadets, faculty, and staff of different races, ethnicities, genders, religions, sexual orientations, socioeconomic backgrounds, and geographic origins at the Coast Guard Academy.

"(D) Restructure the admissions office of the Coast Guard Academy to be headed by a civilian with significant relevant higher education recruitment experience.

"(3) Implementation.—Unless otherwise directed by an Act of Congress, the Commandant shall begin implementation of the plan developed under this subsection not later than 180 days after the submission of such plan to Congress.

"(4) Update.—The Commandant shall include in the first annual report required under chapter 51 of title 14, United States Code, as amended by this division, submitted after the date of enactment of this section [Jan. 1, 2021], the strategy with milestones required in paragraph (2) and shall report annually thereafter on actions taken and progress made in the implementation of such plan."

§1902. Policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence

(a) Required Policy.—The Commandant shall direct the Superintendent of the Coast Guard Academy to prescribe a policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence applicable to the cadets and other personnel of the Academy.

(b) Matters To Be Specified in Policy.—The policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence under this section shall include specification of the following:

(1) Programs to promote awareness of the incidence of rape, acquaintance rape, and other sexual offenses of a criminal nature that involve cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Information about how the Coast Guard and the Academy will protect the confidentiality of victims of sexual harassment or sexual violence, including how any records, statistics, or reports intended for public release will be formatted such that the confidentiality of victims is not jeopardized.

(3) Procedures that cadets and other Academy personnel should follow in the case of an occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence, including—

(A) if the victim chooses to report an occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence, a specification of the individual or individuals to whom the alleged offense should be reported and options for confidential reporting, including written information to be given to victims that explains how the Coast Guard and the Academy will protect the confidentiality of victims;

(B) a specification of any other individual whom the victim should contact; and

(C) procedures on the preservation of evidence potentially necessary for proof of criminal sexual assault.


(4) Procedures for disciplinary action in cases of criminal sexual assault involving a cadet or other Academy personnel.

(5) Sanctions authorized to be imposed in a substantiated case of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving a cadet or other Academy personnel, including with respect to rape, acquaintance rape, or other criminal sexual offense, whether forcible or nonforcible.

(6) Required training on the policy for all cadets and other Academy personnel who process allegations of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving a cadet or other Academy personnel.


(c) Assessment.—

(1) In general.—The Commandant shall direct the Superintendent to conduct at the Academy during each Academy program year an assessment to determine the effectiveness of the policies of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Biennial survey.—For the assessment at the Academy under paragraph (1) with respect to an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year, the Superintendent shall conduct a survey of cadets and other Academy personnel—

(A) to measure—

(i) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have been reported to an official of the Academy; and

(ii) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have not been reported to an official of the Academy; and


(B) to assess the perceptions of the cadets and other Academy personnel with respect to—

(i) the Academy's policies, training, and procedures on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel;

(ii) the enforcement of such policies;

(iii) the incidence of sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel; and

(iv) any other issues relating to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel.


(d) Report.—

(1) In general.—The Commandant shall direct the Superintendent to submit to the Commandant a report on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel for each Academy program year.

(2) Report specifications.—Each report under paragraph (1) shall include, for the Academy program year covered by the report, the following:

(A) The number of sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses involving cadets or other Academy personnel that have been reported to Academy officials during the Academy program year and, of those reported cases, the number that have been substantiated.

(B) A plan for the actions that are to be taken in the following Academy program year regarding prevention of and response to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel.


(3) Biennial survey.—Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year shall include the results of the survey conducted in that Academy program year under subsection (c)(2).

(4) Transmission of report.—The Commandant shall transmit each report received by the Commandant under this subsection, together with the Commandant's comments on the report, to—

(A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.


(5) Focus groups.—

(A) In general.—For each Academy program year with respect to which the Superintendent is not required to conduct a survey at the Academy under subsection (c)(2), the Commandant shall require focus groups to be conducted at the Academy for the purposes of ascertaining information relating to sexual assault and sexual harassment issues at the Academy.

(B) Inclusion in reports.—Information derived from a focus group under subparagraph (A) shall be included in the next transmitted Commandant's report under this subsection.


(e) Victim Confidentiality.—To the extent that information collected under the authority of this section is reported or otherwise made available to the public, such information shall be provided in a form that is consistent with applicable privacy protections under Federal law and does not jeopardize the confidentiality of victims.

(Added Pub. L. 112–213, title II, §205(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1543, §200; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(c)(9), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2320; renumbered §1902, Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §110(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4212; Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXV [LXXXV], §8505(a)(11), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4748.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2021—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 116–283, §8505(a)(11)(A), substituted "individual or individuals" for "person or persons".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 116–283, §8505(a)(11)(B), substituted "individual" for "person".

2018Pub. L. 115–282 renumbered section 200 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "Commandant" for "Commandant of the Coast Guard".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Policy for Military Service Academies on Separation of Alleged Victims and Alleged Perpetrators in Incidents of Sexual Assault

Secretary of Defense to consult with Secretaries of the military departments and Superintendent of each military service academy and prescribe in regulations a policy that allows a cadet or midshipman of a military service academy who is the alleged victim or alleged perpetrator of a sexual assault to complete their course of study at the academy with minimal disruption and does not preclude the academy from taking other administrative or disciplinary action, see section 539 of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note under section 7461 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Expedited Transfer in Cases of Sexual Assault; Dependents of Members of the Coast Guard

Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8282, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4688, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 1, 2021], the Commandant [of the Coast Guard] shall establish a policy to allow the transfer of a member of the Coast Guard whose dependent is the victim of sexual assault perpetrated by a member of the Armed Forces who is not related to the victim."

Applicability of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response and Related Military Justice Enhancements to Coast Guard Academy

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title V, §552(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3377, provided that: "The Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall ensure that the provisions of title XVII of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (Public Law 113–66; 127 Stat. 950) [see Tables for classification], including amendments made by that title, and the provisions of subtitle D [§§531–547 of title V of div. A of Pub. L. 113–291; see Tables for classification], including amendments made by such subtitle, apply to the Coast Guard Academy."

§1903. Annual Board of Visitors

(a) In General.—A Board of Visitors to the Coast Guard Academy is established to review and make recommendations on the operation of the Academy.

(b) Membership.—

(1) In general.—The membership of the Board shall consist of the following:

(A) The chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, or the chairman's designee.

(B) The chairman of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, or the chairman's designee.

(C) 3 Members of the Senate designated by the Vice President.

(D) 4 Members of the House of Representatives designated by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(E) 6 individuals designated by the President.


(2) Length of service.—

(A) Members of congress.—A Member of Congress designated under subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (1) as a member of the Board shall be designated as a member in the First Session of a Congress and serve for the duration of that Congress.

(B) Individuals designated by the president.—Each individual designated by the President under subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) shall serve as a member of the Board for 3 years, except that any such member whose term of office has expired shall continue to serve until a successor is appointed.


(3) Death or resignation of a member.—If a member of the Board dies or resigns, a successor shall be designated for any unexpired portion of the term of the member by the official who designated the member.


(c) Academy Visits.—

(1) Annual visit.—The Board shall visit the Academy annually to review the operation of the Academy.

(2) Additional visits.—With the approval of the Secretary, the Board or individual members of the Board may make other visits to the Academy in connection with the duties of the Board or to consult with the Superintendent of the Academy.


(d) Scope of Review.—The Board shall review, with respect to the Academy—

(1) the state of morale and discipline;

(2) recruitment and retention, including diversity, inclusion, and issues regarding women specifically;

(3) the curriculum;

(4) instruction;

(5) physical equipment;

(6) fiscal affairs; and

(7) other matters relating to the Academy that the Board determines appropriate.


(e) Report.—Not later than 60 days after the date of an annual visit of the Board under subsection (c)(1), the Board shall submit to the Secretary, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the actions of the Board during such visit and the recommendations of the Board pertaining to the Academy.

(f) Advisors.—If approved by the Secretary, the Board may consult with advisors in carrying out this section.

(g) Reimbursement.—Each member of the Board and each adviser consulted by the Board under subsection (f) shall be reimbursed, to the extent permitted by law, by the Coast Guard for actual expenses incurred while engaged in duties as a member or adviser.

(Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, 63 Stat. 510, §194; Pub. L. 101–595, title III, §304, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §408(a)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2117; Pub. L. 113–281, title II, §211, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3027; renumbered §1903, Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §110(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4212; Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8277, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4687.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 14, U.S.C., 1946 ed., §15h (Apr. 16, 1937, ch. 107, §7, 50 Stat. 67; July 15, 1939, ch. 288, 53 Stat. 1044).

Changes were made in phraseology. 81st Congress, House Report No. 557.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2021—Subsec. (d)(2) to (7). Pub. L. 116–283 added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (6) as (3) to (7), respectively.

2018Pub. L. 115–282 renumbered section 194 of this title as this section.

2014Pub. L. 113–281 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (f) relating to establishment and composition of Board of Visitors, designation of Members, absence of a Member or ex officio Member from an annual meeting, and annual visit to the Academy.

2002—Subsec. (b)(2), (5). Pub. L. 107–295 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Merchant Marine and Fisheries".

1990Pub. L. 101–595 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

"(a) In addition to the Advisory Committee, there shall be appointed in January of each year a Board of Visitors to the Academy, consisting of two Senators and three members of the House of Representatives, appointed by the chairmen of the committees of the Senate and House of Representatives, respectively, having cognizance of legislation pertaining to the Academy, the chairmen of said committees being ex officio members of the Board, and of one Senator and two members of the House of Representatives appointed by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively. Whenever a member or an ex officio member is unable to attend the annual meeting as provided in this section another member may be appointed in his stead in the manner as herein provided but without restriction as to month of appointment.

"(b) Such Board shall visit the Academy annually on a date to be fixed by the Secretary. Each member of the Board shall be reimbursed from Coast Guard appropriations under Government travel regulations for the actual expense incurred by him while engaged in duties as a member of such Board, or such actual expenses as permitted under such regulations shall be defrayed by the Coast Guard."

§1904. Advisory Board on Women at the Coast Guard Academy

(a) In General.—The Superintendent of the Academy shall establish at the Coast Guard Academy an advisory board to be known as the Advisory Board on Women at the Coast Guard Academy (referred to in this section as the "Advisory Board").

(b) Membership.—The Advisory Board shall be composed of not fewer than 12 current cadets of the Coast Guard Academy, including not fewer than 3 cadets from each current class.

(c) Appointment; Term.—Cadets shall serve on the Advisory Board pursuant to appointment by the Superintendent of the Academy. Appointments shall be made not later than 60 days after the date of the swearing in of a new class of cadets at the Academy. The term of membership of a cadet on the Advisory Board shall be 1 academic year.

(d) Reappointment.—The Superintendent of the Academy may reappoint not more than 6 cadets from the previous term to serve on the Advisory Board for an additional academic year if the Superintendent of the Academy determines such reappointment to be in the best interests of the Coast Guard Academy.

(e) Meetings.—The Advisory Board shall meet with the Commandant at least once each academic year on the activities of the Advisory Board. The Advisory Board shall meet in person with the Superintendent of the Academy not less than twice each academic year on the duties of the Advisory Board.

(f) Duties.—The Advisory Board shall identify opportunities and challenges facing cadets at the Academy who are women, including an assessment of culture, leadership development, and access to health care of cadets at the Academy who are women.

(g) Working Groups.—The Advisory Board may establish one or more working groups to assist the Advisory Board in carrying out its duties, including working groups composed in part of cadets at the Academy who are not current members of the Advisory Board.

(h) Reports and Briefings.—The Advisory Board shall regularly provide the Commandant and the Superintendent reports and briefings on the results of its duties, including recommendations for actions to be taken in light of such results. Such reports and briefings may be provided in writing, in person, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8215(b)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4651.)


Editorial Notes

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1904 was renumbered section 1906 of this title.

§1905. Coast Guard Academy minority outreach team program

(a) In General.—There is established within the Coast Guard Academy a minority outreach team program (in this section referred to as the "Program" ) under which officers, including minority officers and officers from territories and other possessions of the United States, who are Academy graduates may volunteer their time to recruit minority students and strengthen cadet retention through mentorship of cadets.

(b) Administration.—Not later than January 1, 2021, the Commandant, in consultation with Program volunteers and Academy alumni that participated in prior programs at the Academy similar to the Program, shall appoint a permanent civilian position at the Academy to administer the Program by, among other things—

(1) overseeing administration of the Program;

(2) serving as a resource to volunteers and outside stakeholders;

(3) advising Academy leadership on recruitment and retention efforts based on recommendations from volunteers and outside stakeholders;

(4) establishing strategic goals and performance metrics for the Program with input from active volunteers and Academy leadership; and

(5) reporting annually to the Commandant on academic year and performance outcomes of the goals for the Program before the end of each academic year.

(Added Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8275(a), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4685.)

§1906. Participation in Federal, State, or other educational research grants

(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the United States Coast Guard Academy may compete for and accept Federal, State, or other educational research grants, subject to the following limitations:

(1) No award may be accepted for the acquisition or construction of facilities.

(2) No award may be accepted for the routine functions of the Academy.


(b) Qualified Organizations.—

(1) In general.—The Commandant may—

(A) enter into a contract, cooperative agreement, lease, or licensing agreement with a qualified organization;

(B) allow a qualified organization to use, at no cost, personal property of the Coast Guard; and

(C) notwithstanding section 504, accept funds, supplies, and services from a qualified organization.


(2) Sole-source basis.—Notwithstanding chapter 65 of title 31 and chapter 137 of title 10, the Commandant may enter into a contract or cooperative agreement under paragraph (1)(A) on a sole-source basis.

(3) Maintaining fairness, objectivity, and integrity.—The Commandant shall ensure that contributions under this subsection do not—

(A) reflect unfavorably on the ability of the Coast Guard, any of its employees, or any member of the armed forces to carry out any responsibility or duty in a fair and objective manner; or

(B) compromise the integrity or appearance of integrity of any program of the Coast Guard, or any individual involved in such a program.


(4) Limitation.—For purposes of this subsection, employees or personnel of a qualified organization shall not be employees of the United States.

(5) Qualified organization defined.—In this subsection the term "qualified organization" means an organization—

(A) described under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of that Code; and

(B) established by the Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association solely for the purpose of supporting academic research and applying for and administering Federal, State, or other educational research grants on behalf of the Coast Guard Academy.

(Added Pub. L. 103–206, title III, §305(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2424, §196; amended Pub. L. 114–120, title II, §218, Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 47; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(c)(10), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2320; renumbered §1904 and amended Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §§110(b), 123(b)(2), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4212, 4240; renumbered §1906, Pub. L. 116–283, div. G, title LVXXXII [LXXXII], §8215(b)(1), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4650.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (b)(5)(A), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2021Pub. L. 116–283 renumbered section 1904 of this title as this section.

2018Pub. L. 115–282, §110(b), renumbered section 196 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "Commandant" for "Commandant of the Coast Guard" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–282, §123(b)(2), substituted "section 504" for "section 93".

2016Pub. L. 114–120 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).