42 USC CHAPTER 152, SUBCHAPTER V, Part B: Geothermal Energy
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

42 USC CHAPTER 152, SUBCHAPTER V, Part B: Geothermal Energy
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 152—ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND SECURITYSUBCHAPTER V—ACCELERATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Part B—Geothermal Energy

§17191. Definitions

For purposes of this part:

(1) Engineered

When referring to enhanced geothermal systems, the term "engineered" means designed to access subsurface heat, including stimulation and nonstimulation technologies to address one or more of the following issues:

(A) Lack of effective permeability, porosity or open fracture connectivity within the heat reservoir.

(B) Insufficient contained geofluid in the heat reservoir.

(C) A low average geothermal gradient which necessitates deeper drilling, or the use of alternative heat sources or heat generation processes.

(2) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means any of the following entities:

(A) An institution of higher education.

(B) A National laboratory.

(C) A Federal research agency.

(D) A State research agency.

(E) A nonprofit research organization.

(F) An industrial entity.

(G) A consortium of 2 or more entities described in subparagraphs (A) through (F).

(3) Enhanced geothermal systems

The term "enhanced geothermal systems" means geothermal reservoir systems that are engineered, as opposed to occurring naturally.

(4) Geofluid

The term "geofluid" means any fluid used to extract thermal energy from the Earth which is transported to the surface for direct use or electric power generation, except that such term shall not include oil or natural gas.

(5) Geopressured resources

The term "geopressured resources" mean geothermal deposits found in sedimentary rocks under higher than normal pressure and saturated with gas or methane.

(6) Geothermal

The term "geothermal" refers to heat energy stored in the Earth's crust that can be accessed for direct use or electric power generation.

(7) Hydrothermal

The term "hydrothermal" refers to naturally occurring subsurface reservoirs of hot water or steam.

(8) Systems approach

The term "systems approach" means an approach to solving problems or designing systems that attempts to optimize the performance of the overall system, rather than a particular component of the system.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §612, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1679; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2487.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020—Par. (1). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) defined the term"engineered".

Pars. (2) to (8). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(a)(2), (3), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (7) as (3) to (8), respectively.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

Short Title

This part known as the "Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act of 2007", see Short Title note set out under section 17001 of this title.

§17192. Hydrothermal research and development

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for geothermal energy production from hydrothermal systems.

(b) Programs

The program authorized in subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) Advanced hydrothermal resource tools

The research and development of advanced geologic tools to assist in locating hydrothermal resources, and to increase the reliability of site characterization, including the development of new imaging and sensing technologies and techniques to assist in prioritization of targets for characterization;

(2) Exploratory drilling for geothermal resources

The demonstration of advanced technologies and techniques of siting and exploratory drilling for undiscovered resources in a variety of geologic settings, carried out in collaboration with industry partners that will assist in the acquisition of high quality data sets relevant for hydrothermal subsurface characterization activities.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §613, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1679; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2487.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to hydrothermal research and development.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17193. General geothermal systems research and development

(a) Subsurface components and systems

The Secretary shall support a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of components and systems capable of withstanding geothermal environments and necessary to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy.

(b) Environmental impacts

The Secretary shall—

(1) support a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of technologies and practices designed to mitigate or preclude potential adverse environmental impacts of geothermal energy development, production or use;

(2) support a research program to identify potential environmental impacts, including induced seismicity, and environmental benefits of geothermal energy development, production, and use, and ensure that the program described in paragraph (1) addresses such impacts, including water use and effects on groundwater and local hydrology;

(3) support a program of research to compare the potential environmental impacts and environmental benefits identified as part of the development, production, and use of geothermal energy with the potential emission reductions of greenhouse gases gained by geothermal energy development, production, and use; and

(4) in carrying out this section, the Secretary shall,1 to the maximum extent practicable, consult with relevant federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency.

(c) Reservoir thermal energy storage

The Secretary shall support a program of research, development, and demonstration of reservoir thermal energy storage, emphasizing cost-effective improvements through deep direct use engineering, design, and systems research.

(d) Oil and gas technology transfer initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall support an initiative among the Office of Fossil Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and the private sector to research, develop, and demonstrate relevant advanced technologies and operation techniques used in the oil and gas sector for use in geothermal energy development.

(2) Priorities

In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall prioritize technologies with the greatest potential to significantly increase the use and lower the cost of geothermal energy in the United States, including the cost and speed of geothermal drilling surface technologies, large- and small-scale drilling, and well construction.

(e) Coproduction of geothermal energy and minerals production research and development initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a research and development initiative under which the Secretary shall provide financial assistance to demonstrate the coproduction of critical minerals from geothermal resources.

(2) Requirements

An award made under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) improve the cost effectiveness of removing minerals from geothermal brines as part of the coproduction process;

(B) increase recovery rates of the targeted mineral commodity;

(C) decrease water use and other environmental impacts, as determined by the Secretary; and

(D) demonstrate a path to commercial viability.

(f) Flexible operations

The Secretary shall support a research initiative on flexible operation of geothermal power plants.

(g) Integrated energy systems

The Secretary shall identify opportunities for joint research, development, and demonstration programs between geothermal systems and other energy generation or storage systems.

(h) Drilling data repository

(1) In general

The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, establish and operate a voluntary, industry-wide repository of geothermal drilling information to lower the cost of future geothermal drilling.

(2) Repository

(A) In general

In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall collaborate with countries utilizing a significant amount of geothermal energy, as determined by the Secretary.

(B) Data system

The repository established under paragraph (1) shall be integrated with the National Geothermal Data System.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §614, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1680; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(c), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2488.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to general geothermal systems research and development.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original.

§17194. Enhanced geothermal systems research and development

(a) In general

The Secretary shall support a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for enhanced geothermal systems, including the programs described in subsection (b).

(b) Enhanced geothermal systems technologies

In collaboration with industry partners, institutions of higher education, and the national laboratories, the Secretary shall support a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of the technologies to achieve higher efficiency and lower cost enhanced geothermal systems, including—

(1) reservoir stimulation;

(2) drilled, non-stimulated (e.g. closed-loop) reservoir technologies;

(3) reservoir characterization, monitoring, and modeling and understanding of the surface area and volume of fractures;

(4) stress and fracture mapping including real time monitoring and modeling;

(5) tracer development;

(6) three and four-dimensional seismic imaging and tomography;

(7) well placement and orientation;

(8) long-term reservoir management;

(9) drilling technologies, methods, and tools;

(10) improved exploration tools;

(11) zonal isolation; and

(12) understanding induced seismicity risks from reservoir engineering and stimulation.

(c) Frontier observatory for research in geothermal energy

(1) In general

The Secretary shall support the establishment and construction of up to 3 field research sites, which shall each be known as a "Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy" or "FORGE" site to develop, test, and enhance techniques and tools for enhanced geothermal energy.

(2) Duties

The Secretary shall—

(A) provide financial assistance in support of research and development projects focused on advanced monitoring technologies, new technologies and approaches for implementing multi-zone stimulations, nonstimulation techniques, and dynamic reservoir modeling that incorporates all available high-fidelity characterization data; and

(B) seek opportunities to coordinate efforts and share information with domestic and international partners engaged in research and development of geothermal systems and related technology, including coordination between FORGE sites.

(3) Site selection

Of the FORGE sites referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consider applications through a competitive, merit-reviewed process, from National Laboratories, multi-institutional collaborations, institutes of higher education and other appropriate entities best suited to provide national leadership on geothermal related issues and perform the duties enumerated under this subsection;

(B) prioritize existing field sites and facilities with capabilities relevant to the duties enumerated under this subsection;

(C) determine the mission need for and potential location of subsequent FORGE sites following the completion of construction and one year of operation of two FORGE sites; and

(D) ensure geologic diversity among FORGE sites when developing subsequent sites, to the maximum extent practicable.

(4) Existing forge sites

A FORGE site already in existence on December 27, 2020, may continue to receive support.

(5) Site operation

(A) Initial duration

FORGE sites selected under paragraph (3) shall operate for an initial term of not more than 7 years after the date on which site operation begins.

(B) Performance metrics

The Secretary shall establish performance metrics for each FORGE site supported under this paragraph, which may be used by the Secretary to determine whether a FORGE site should continue to receive funding.

(6) Additional terms

(A) In general

At the end of an operational term described in subparagraph (B), a FORGE site may—

(i) be transferred to other public or private entities for further enhanced geothermal testing; or

(ii) subject to appropriations and a merit review by the Secretary, operate for an additional term of not more than 7 years.

(B) Operational term described

An operational term referred to in subparagraph (A)—

(i) in the case of an existing FORGE site, is the existing operational term; and

(ii) in the case of new FORGE sites selected under paragraph (3), is the initial term under paragraph (5)(A) or an additional term under subparagraph (A)(ii) of this paragraph.

(7) Funding

(A) In general

Out of funds authorized to be appropriated under section 17202 of this title, there shall be made available to the Secretary to carry out the FORGE activities under this paragraph—

(i) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(ii) $55,000,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(iii) $65,000,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(iv) $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(v) $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(B) Considerations

In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the balance between funds dedicated to construction and operations and research activities to reflect the state of site development.

(d) Enhanced geothermal systems demonstrations

(1) In general

Beginning on December 27, 2020, the Secretary, in collaboration with industry partners, institutions of higher education, and the national laboratories, shall support an initiative for demonstration of enhanced geothermal systems for power production or direct use.

(2) Projects

(A) In general

Under the initiative described in paragraph (1), 4 demonstration projects shall be carried out in locations that are potentially commercially viable for enhanced geothermal systems development, while also considering environmental impacts to the maximum extent practicable, as determined by the Secretary.

(B) Requirements

Demonstration projects under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) collectively demonstrate—

(I) different geologic settings, such as hot sedimentary aquifers, layered geologic systems, supercritical systems, and basement rock systems; and

(II) a variety of development techniques, including open hole and cased hole completions, differing well orientations, and stimulation and nonstimulation mechanisms; and


(ii) to the extent practicable, use existing sites where subsurface characterization or geothermal energy integration analysis has been conducted.

(C) Eastern demonstration

Not fewer than 1 of the demonstration projects carried out under subparagraph (A) shall be located an area east of the Mississippi River that is suitable for enhanced geothermal demonstration for power, heat, or a combination of power and heat.

(D) Milestone-based demonstration projects

The Secretary may carry out demonstration projects under this subsection as a milestone-based demonstration project under section 7256c of this title.

(3) Funding

Out of funds authorized to be appropriated under section 17202 of this title, there shall be made available to the Secretary to carry out the demonstration activities under this subsection $21,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §615, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1680; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(d), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2489.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

December 27, 2020, referred to in subsecs. (c)(4) and (d)(1), was in the original "the date of enactment of this Act" and "he date of enactment of this section", respectively, and were translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–260, which was approved Dec. 27, 2020.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to enhanced geothermal systems research and development.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17195. Geothermal energy production from oil and gas fields and recovery and production of geopressured gas resources

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to support development of geothermal energy production from oil and gas fields and production and recovery of energy, including electricity, from geopressured resources. In addition, the Secretary shall conduct such supporting activities including research, resource characterization, and technology development as necessary.

(b) Geothermal energy production from oil and gas fields

The Secretary shall implement a grant program in support of geothermal energy production from oil and gas fields. The program shall include grants for a total of not less than three demonstration projects of the use of geothermal techniques such as advanced organic rankine cycle systems at marginal, unproductive, and productive oil and gas wells. The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable and in the public interest, make awards that—

(1) include not less than five oil or gas well sites per project award;

(2) use a range of oil or gas well hot water source temperatures from 150 degrees Fahrenheit to 300 degrees Fahrenheit;

(3) cover a range of sizes up to one megawatt;

(4) are located at a range of sites;

(5) can be replicated at a wide range of sites;

(6) facilitate identification of optimum techniques among competing alternatives;

(7) include business commercialization plans that have the potential for production of equipment at high volumes and operation and support at a large number of sites; and

(8) satisfy other criteria that the Secretary determines are necessary to carry out the program and collect necessary data and information.


The Secretary shall give preference to assessments that address multiple elements contained in paragraphs (1) through (8).

(c) Grant awards

Each grant award for demonstration of geothermal technology such as advanced organic rankine cycle systems at oil and gas wells made by the Secretary under subsection (b) shall include—

(1) necessary and appropriate site engineering study;

(2) detailed economic assessment of site specific conditions;

(3) appropriate feasibility studies to determine whether the demonstration can be replicated;

(4) design or adaptation of existing technology for site specific circumstances or conditions;

(5) installation of equipment, service, and support;

(6) operation for a minimum of 1 year and monitoring for the duration of the demonstration; and

(7) validation of technical and economic assumptions and documentation of lessons learned.

(d) Geopressured gas resource recovery and production

(1) The Secretary shall implement a program to support the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of cost-effective techniques to produce energy from geopressured resources.

(2) The Secretary shall solicit preliminary engineering designs for geopressured resources production and recovery facilities.

(3) Based upon a review of the preliminary designs, the Secretary shall award grants, which may be cost-shared, to support the detailed development and completion of engineering, architectural and technical plans needed to support construction of new designs.

(4) Based upon a review of the final design plans above, the Secretary shall award cost-shared development and construction grants for demonstration geopressured production facilities that show potential for economic recovery of the heat, kinetic energy and gas resources from geopressured resources.

(e) Competitive grant selection

Not less than 90 days after December 19, 2007, the Secretary shall conduct a national solicitation for applications for grants under the programs outlined in subsections (b) and (d). Grant recipients shall be selected on a competitive basis based on criteria in the respective subsection.

(f) Well drilling

No funds may be used under this section for the purpose of drilling new wells.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §616, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1681.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17195a. Geothermal heat pumps and direct use research and development

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to improve the understanding of related earth sciences, components, processes, and systems used for geothermal heat pumps and the direct use of geothermal energy; and

(2) to increase the energy efficiency, lower the cost, increase the use, and improve and demonstrate the effectiveness of geothermal heat pumps and the direct use of geothermal energy.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Direct use of geothermal energy

The term "direct use of geothermal energy" means geothermal systems that use water directly or through a heat exchanger to provide—

(A) heating and cooling to buildings, commercial districts, residential communities, and large municipal, or industrial projects; or

(B) heat required for industrial processes, agriculture, aquaculture, and other facilities.

(2) Economically distressed area

The term "economically distressed area" means an area described in section 3161(a) of this title.

(3) Geothermal heat pump

The term "geothermal heat pump" means a system that provides heating and cooling by exchanging heat from shallow geology, groundwater, or surface water using—

(A) a closed loop system, which transfers heat by way of buried or immersed pipes that contain a mix of water and working fluid; or

(B) an open loop system, which circulates ground or surface water directly into the building and returns the water to the same aquifer or surface water source.

(c) Program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall support within the Geothermal Technologies Office a program of research, development, and demonstration for geothermal heat pumps and the direct use of geothermal energy.

(2) Areas

The program under paragraph (1) may include research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of—

(A) geothermal ground loop efficiency improvements, cost reductions, and improved installation and operations methods;

(B) the use of geothermal energy for building-scale energy storage;

(C) the use of geothermal energy as a grid management resource or seasonal energy storage;

(D) geothermal heat pump efficiency improvements;

(E) the use of alternative fluids as a heat exchange medium, such as hot water found in mines and mine shafts, graywater, or other fluids that may improve the economics of geothermal heat pumps;

(F) heating of districts, neighborhoods, communities, large commercial or public buildings, and industrial and manufacturing facilities;

(G) the use of low temperature groundwater for direct use; and

(H) system integration of direct use with geothermal electricity production.

(3) Environmental impacts

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall identify and mitigate potential environmental impacts in accordance with section 17193(b) of this title.

(d) Financial assistance

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out the program established in subsection (c) by making financial assistance available to State, local, and Tribal governments, institutions of higher education, nonprofit entities, National Laboratories, utilities, and for-profit companies.

(2) Priority

In providing financial assistance under this subsection, the Secretary may give priority to proposals that apply to large buildings, commercial districts, and residential communities that are located in economically distressed areas and areas that the Secretary determines to have high economic potential for geothermal district heating based on the report, "Geovision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath our Feet" published by the Department in 2019, or a successor report.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §616A, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(e)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2492.)

§17196. Organization and administration of programs

(a) Federal share

The Federal share of costs of projects funded under this part shall be in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(b) Organization and administration of programs

Programs under this part shall incorporate the following elements:

(1) The Secretary shall coordinate with, and where appropriate may provide funds in furtherance of the purposes of this part to, other Department of Energy research and development programs focused on drilling, subsurface characterization, and other related technologies.

(2) The Secretary shall coordinate and consult with the appropriate Federal land management agencies in selecting proposals for funding under this part.

(3) Nothing in this part shall be construed to alter or affect any law relating to the management or protection of Federal lands.

(c) Education and outreach

In carrying out the activities described in this part, the Secretary shall support education and outreach activities to disseminate information on geothermal energy technologies and the geothermal energy workforce, including activities at the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy site or sites.

(d) Technical assistance

In carrying out this part, the Secretary shall also conduct technical assistance and analysis activities with eligible entities for the purpose of supporting the commercial application of advances in geothermal energy systems development and operations, which may include activities that support expanding access to advanced geothermal energy technologies for rural, Tribal, and low-income communities.

(e) Report

Every 5 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall report to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate on advanced concepts and technologies to maximize the geothermal resource potential of the United States.

(f) Progress reports

Not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report on the results of projects undertaken under this part and other such information the Secretary considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §617, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1682; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(f)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2493.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (f), probably should be a reference to "this subtitle", meaning subtitle B of title VI of Pub. L. 110–140, which is classified to this part.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(f)(1)(A), substituted "Organization and administration of programs" for "Cost sharing and proposal evaluation" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(f)(1)(B), redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "In evaluating proposals, the Secretary shall give priority to proposals that demonstrate clear evidence of employing a systems approach."

Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(f)(1)(C), added subsecs. (c) to (f).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17197. Advanced geothermal computing and data science research and development

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research and development of advanced computing and data science tools for geothermal energy.

(b) Programs

The program authorized in subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) Advanced computing for geothermal systems technologies

Research, development, and demonstration of technologies to develop advanced data, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and related computing tools to assist in locating geothermal resources, to increase the reliability of site characterization, to increase the rate and efficiency of drilling, to improve induced seismicity mitigation, and to support enhanced geothermal systems technologies.

(2) Geothermal systems reservoir modeling

Research, development, and demonstration of models of geothermal reservoir performance and enhanced geothermal systems reservoir stimulation technologies and techniques, with an emphasis on accurately modeling fluid and heat flow, permeability evolution, geomechanics, geochemistry, seismicity, and operational performance over time, including collaboration with industry and field validation.

(c) Coordination

In carrying out these programs, the Secretary shall ensure coordination and consultation with the Department of Energy's Office of Science. The Secretary shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, coordination of these activities with the Department of Energy National Laboratories, institutes of higher education, and the private sector.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §618, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1683; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(g)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2494.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to Center for Geothermal Technology Transfer.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17198. Geothermal workforce development

The Secretary shall support the development of a geothermal energy workforce through a program that—

(1) facilitates collaboration between university students and researchers at the National Laboratories; and

(2) prioritizes science in areas relevant to the mission of the Department through the application of geothermal energy tools and technologies.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §619, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1683; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(h)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2495.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Secretary shall expand the Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West program to extend its geothermal technology transfer activities throughout the entire United States. The program shall be renamed 'GeoPowering America'. The program shall continue to be based in the Department of Energy office in Golden, Colorado."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§§17199, 17200. Repealed. Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(i)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2495

Section 17199, Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §620, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1683, related to educational pilot program.

Section 17200, Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §621, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1684, related to reports to Congress.

§17201. Applicability of other laws

Nothing in this part shall be construed as waiving, modifying, or superseding the applicability of any requirement under any environmental or other Federal or State law. To the extent that activities authorized in this part take place in coastal and ocean areas, the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, regarding the potential marine environmental impacts and measures to address such impacts.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §622, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1684.)


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17202. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the programs under this part $170,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §623, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1684; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(j), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2495.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 2008 to 2012.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17203. International geothermal energy development

(a) In general

The Secretary of Energy, in coordination with other appropriate Federal and multilateral agencies (including the United States Agency for International Development) shall support collaborative efforts with international partners to promote the research, development, and demonstration of geothermal technologies used to develop hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal system resources.

(b) United States Trade and Development Agency

The Director of the United States Trade and Development Agency may—

(1) encourage participation by United States firms in actions taken to carry out subsection (a); and

(2) provide grants and other financial support for feasibility and resource assessment studies conducted in, or intended to benefit, less developed countries.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §624, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1684; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(k), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2495.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(k)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of Energy, in coordination with other appropriate Federal and multilateral agencies (including the United States Agency for International Development) shall support international collaborative efforts to promote the research, development, and deployment of geothermal technologies used to develop hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal system resources, including as partners (as appropriate) the African Rift Geothermal Development Facility, Australia, China, France, the Republic of Iceland, India, Japan, and the United Kingdom."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(k)(2), struck out subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17204. High cost region geothermal energy grant program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a utility;

(B) an electric cooperative;

(C) a State;

(D) a political subdivision of a State;

(E) an Indian tribe; or

(F) a Native corporation.

(2) High-cost region

The term "high-cost region" means a region in which the average cost of electrical power or heat exceeds 150 percent of the national average retail cost, as determined by the Secretary.

(b) Program

The Secretary shall use amounts made available to carry out this section to make grants to eligible entities for activities described in subsection (c).

(c) Eligible activities

An eligible entity may use grant funds under this section, with respect to a geothermal energy project in a high-cost region, only—

(1) to conduct a feasibility study, including a study of exploration, geochemical testing, geomagnetic surveys, geologic information gathering, baseline environmental studies, well drilling, resource characterization, permitting, and economic analysis;

(2) for design and engineering costs, relating to the project; and

(3) to demonstrate and promote commercial application of technologies related to geothermal energy as part of the project.

(d) Cost sharing

The cost-sharing requirements of section 16352 of this title shall apply to any project carried out under this section.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

Out of funds authorized under section 17202 of this title, there is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §625, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1685; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3002(l), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2496.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(l)(1), inserted "or heat" after "electrical power".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 116–260, §3002(l)(2), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.